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* Copyright 2020 Google LLC
* Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
* found in the LICENSE file.
#ifndef GrBlockAllocator_DEFINED
#define GrBlockAllocator_DEFINED
#include "include/private/GrTypesPriv.h"
#include "include/private/SkNoncopyable.h"
#include "src/core/SkASAN.h"
#include <memory> // std::unique_ptr
#include <cstddef> // max_align_t
* GrBlockAllocator provides low-level support for a block allocated arena with a dynamic tail that
* tracks space reservations within each block. Its APIs provide the ability to reserve space,
* resize reservations, and release reservations. It will automatically create new blocks if needed
* and destroy all remaining blocks when it is destructed. It assumes that anything allocated within
* its blocks has its destructors called externally. It is recommended that GrBlockAllocator is
* wrapped by a higher-level allocator that uses the low-level APIs to implement a simpler,
* purpose-focused API w/o having to worry as much about byte-level concerns.
* GrBlockAllocator has no limit to its total size, but each allocation is limited to 512MB (which
* should be sufficient for Ganesh's use cases). This upper allocation limit allows all internal
* operations to be performed using 'int' and avoid many overflow checks. Static asserts are used
* to ensure that those operations would not overflow when using the largest possible values.
* Possible use modes:
* 1. No upfront allocation, either on the stack or as a field
* GrBlockAllocator allocator(policy, heapAllocSize);
* 2. In-place new'd
* void* mem = operator new(totalSize);
* GrBlockAllocator* allocator = new (mem) GrBlockAllocator(policy, heapAllocSize,
* totalSize- sizeof(GrBlockAllocator));
* delete allocator;
* 3. Use GrSBlockAllocator to increase the preallocation size
* GrSBlockAllocator<1024> allocator(policy, heapAllocSize);
* sizeof(allocator) == 1024;
class GrBlockAllocator final : SkNoncopyable {
// Largest size that can be requested from allocate(), chosen because it's the largest pow-2
// that is less than int32_t::max()/2.
static constexpr int kMaxAllocationSize = 1 << 29;
enum class GrowthPolicy : int {
kFixed, // Next block size = N
kLinear, // = #blocks * N
kFibonacci, // = fibonacci(#blocks) * N
kExponential, // = 2^#blocks * N
kLast = kExponential
static constexpr int kGrowthPolicyCount = static_cast<int>(GrowthPolicy::kLast) + 1;
class Block;
// Tuple representing a range of bytes, marking the unaligned start, the first aligned point
// after any padding, and the upper limit depending on requested size.
struct ByteRange {
Block* fBlock; // Owning block
int fStart; // Inclusive byte lower limit of byte range
int fAlignedOffset; // >= start, matching alignment requirement (i.e. first real byte)
int fEnd; // Exclusive upper limit of byte range
class Block final {
void operator delete(void* p) { ::operator delete(p); }
// Return the maximum allocation size with the given alignment that can fit in this block.
template <size_t Align = 1, size_t Padding = 0>
int avail() const { return std::max(0, fSize - this->cursor<Align, Padding>()); }
// Return the aligned offset of the first allocation, assuming it was made with the
// specified Align, and Padding. The returned offset does not mean a valid allocation
// starts at that offset, this is a utility function for classes built on top to manage
// indexing into a block effectively.
template <size_t Align = 1, size_t Padding = 0>
int firstAlignedOffset() const { return this->alignedOffset<Align, Padding>(kDataStart); }
// Convert an offset into this block's storage into a usable pointer.
void* ptr(int offset) {
SkASSERT(offset >= kDataStart && offset < fSize);
return reinterpret_cast<char*>(this) + offset;
const void* ptr(int offset) const { return const_cast<Block*>(this)->ptr(offset); }
// Every block has an extra 'int' for clients to use however they want. It will start
// at 0 when a new block is made, or when the head block is reset.
int metadata() const { return fMetadata; }
void setMetadata(int value) { fMetadata = value; }
* Release the byte range between offset 'start' (inclusive) and 'end' (exclusive). This
* will return true if those bytes were successfully reclaimed, i.e. a subsequent allocation
* request could occupy the space. Regardless of return value, the provided byte range that
* [start, end) represents should not be used until it's re-allocated with allocate<...>().
inline bool release(int start, int end);
* Resize a previously reserved byte range of offset 'start' (inclusive) to 'end'
* (exclusive). 'deltaBytes' is the SIGNED change to length of the reservation.
* When negative this means the reservation is shrunk and the new length is (end - start -
* |deltaBytes|). If this new length would be 0, the byte range can no longer be used (as if
* it were released instead). Asserts that it would not shrink the reservation below 0.
* If 'deltaBytes' is positive, the allocator attempts to increase the length of the
* reservation. If 'deltaBytes' is less than or equal to avail() and it was the last
* allocation in the block, it can be resized. If there is not enough available bytes to
* accommodate the increase in size, or another allocation is blocking the increase in size,
* then false will be returned and the reserved byte range is unmodified.
inline bool resize(int start, int end, int deltaBytes);
friend class GrBlockAllocator;
Block(Block* prev, int allocationSize);
// We poison the unallocated space in a Block to allow ASAN to catch invalid writes.
void poisonRange(int start, int end) {
sk_asan_poison_memory_region(reinterpret_cast<char*>(this) + start, end - start);
void unpoisonRange(int start, int end) {
sk_asan_unpoison_memory_region(reinterpret_cast<char*>(this) + start, end - start);
// Get fCursor, but aligned such that ptr(rval) satisfies Align.
template <size_t Align, size_t Padding>
int cursor() const { return this->alignedOffset<Align, Padding>(fCursor); }
template <size_t Align, size_t Padding>
int alignedOffset(int offset) const;
bool isScratch() const { return fCursor < 0; }
void markAsScratch() {
fCursor = -1;
this->poisonRange(kDataStart, fSize);
SkDEBUGCODE(int fSentinel;) // known value to check for bad back pointers to blocks
Block* fNext; // doubly-linked list of blocks
Block* fPrev;
// Each block tracks its own cursor because as later blocks are released, an older block
// may become the active tail again.
int fSize; // includes the size of the BlockHeader and requested metadata
int fCursor; // (this + fCursor) points to next available allocation
int fMetadata;
// On release builds, a Block's other 2 pointers and 3 int fields leaves 4 bytes of padding
// for 8 and 16 aligned systems. Currently this is only manipulated in the head block for
// an allocator-level metadata and is explicitly not reset when the head block is "released"
// Down the road we could instead choose to offer multiple metadata slots per block.
int fAllocatorMetadata;
// The size of the head block is determined by 'additionalPreallocBytes'. Subsequent heap blocks
// are determined by 'policy' and 'blockIncrementBytes', although 'blockIncrementBytes' will be
// aligned to std::max_align_t.
// When 'additionalPreallocBytes' > 0, the allocator assumes that many extra bytes immediately
// after the allocator can be used by its inline head block. This is useful when the allocator
// is in-place new'ed into a larger block of memory, but it should remain set to 0 if stack
// allocated or if the class layout does not guarantee that space is present.
GrBlockAllocator(GrowthPolicy policy, size_t blockIncrementBytes,
size_t additionalPreallocBytes = 0);
~GrBlockAllocator() { this->reset(); }
void operator delete(void* p) { ::operator delete(p); }
* Helper to calculate the minimum number of bytes needed for heap block size, under the
* assumption that Align will be the requested alignment of the first call to allocate().
* Ex. To store N instances of T in a heap block, the 'blockIncrementBytes' should be set to
* BlockOverhead<alignof(T)>() + N * sizeof(T) when making the GrBlockAllocator.
template<size_t Align = 1, size_t Padding = 0>
static constexpr size_t BlockOverhead();
* Helper to calculate the minimum number of bytes needed for a preallocation, under the
* assumption that Align will be the requested alignment of the first call to allocate().
* Ex. To preallocate a GrSBlockAllocator to hold N instances of T, its arge should be
* Overhead<alignof(T)>() + N * sizeof(T)
template<size_t Align = 1, size_t Padding = 0>
static constexpr size_t Overhead();
* Return the total number of bytes of the allocator, including its instance overhead, per-block
* overhead and space used for allocations.
size_t totalSize() const;
* Return the total number of bytes usable for allocations. This includes bytes that have
* been reserved already by a call to allocate() and bytes that are still available. It is
* totalSize() minus all allocator and block-level overhead.
size_t totalUsableSpace() const;
* Return the total number of usable bytes that have been reserved by allocations. This will
* be less than or equal to totalUsableSpace().
size_t totalSpaceInUse() const;
* Return the total number of bytes that were pre-allocated for the GrBlockAllocator. This will
* include 'additionalPreallocBytes' passed to the constructor, and represents what the total
* size would become after a call to reset().
size_t preallocSize() const {
// Don't double count fHead's Block overhead in both sizeof(GrBlockAllocator) and fSize.
return sizeof(GrBlockAllocator) + fHead.fSize - BaseHeadBlockSize();
* Return the usable size of the inline head block; this will be equal to
* 'additionalPreallocBytes' plus any alignment padding that the system had to add to Block.
* The returned value represents what could be allocated before a heap block is be created.
size_t preallocUsableSpace() const {
return fHead.fSize - kDataStart;
* Get the current value of the allocator-level metadata (a user-oriented slot). This is
* separate from any block-level metadata, but can serve a similar purpose to compactly support
* data collections on top of GrBlockAllocator.
int metadata() const { return fHead.fAllocatorMetadata; }
* Set the current value of the allocator-level metadata.
void setMetadata(int value) { fHead.fAllocatorMetadata = value; }
* Reserve space that will hold 'size' bytes. This will automatically allocate a new block if
* there is not enough available space in the current block to provide 'size' bytes. The
* returned ByteRange tuple specifies the Block owning the reserved memory, the full byte range,
* and the aligned offset within that range to use for the user-facing pointer. The following
* invariants hold:
* 1. block->ptr(alignedOffset) is aligned to Align
* 2. end - alignedOffset == size
* 3. Padding <= alignedOffset - start <= Padding + Align - 1
* Invariant #3, when Padding > 0, allows intermediate allocators to embed metadata along with
* the allocations. If the Padding bytes are used for some 'struct Meta', then
* ptr(alignedOffset - sizeof(Meta)) can be safely used as a Meta* if Meta's alignment
* requirements are less than or equal to the alignment specified in allocate<>. This can be
* easily guaranteed by using the pattern:
* allocate<max(UserAlign, alignof(Meta)), sizeof(Meta)>(userSize);
* This ensures that ptr(alignedOffset) will always satisfy UserAlign and
* ptr(alignedOffset - sizeof(Meta)) will always satisfy alignof(Meta). Alternatively, memcpy
* can be used to read and write values between start and alignedOffset without worrying about
* alignment requirements of the metadata.
* For over-aligned allocations, the alignedOffset (as an int) may not be a multiple of Align,
* but the result of ptr(alignedOffset) will be a multiple of Align.
template <size_t Align, size_t Padding = 0>
ByteRange allocate(size_t size);
enum ReserveFlags : unsigned {
// If provided to reserve(), the input 'size' will be rounded up to the next size determined
// by the growth policy of the GrBlockAllocator. If not, 'size' will be aligned to max_align
kIgnoreGrowthPolicy_Flag = 0b01,
// If provided to reserve(), the number of available bytes of the current block will not
// be used to satisfy the reservation (assuming the contiguous range was long enough to
// begin with).
kIgnoreExistingBytes_Flag = 0b10,
kNo_ReserveFlags = 0b00
* Ensure the block allocator has 'size' contiguous available bytes. After calling this
* function, currentBlock()->avail<Align, Padding>() may still report less than 'size' if the
* reserved space was added as a scratch block. This is done so that anything remaining in
* the current block can still be used if a smaller-than-size allocation is requested. If 'size'
* is requested by a subsequent allocation, the scratch block will automatically be activated
* and the request will not itself trigger any malloc.
* The optional 'flags' controls how the input size is allocated; by default it will attempt
* to use available contiguous bytes in the current block and will respect the growth policy
* of the allocator.
template <size_t Align = 1, size_t Padding = 0>
void reserve(size_t size, ReserveFlags flags = kNo_ReserveFlags);
* Return a pointer to the start of the current block. This will never be null.
const Block* currentBlock() const { return fTail; }
Block* currentBlock() { return fTail; }
const Block* headBlock() const { return &fHead; }
Block* headBlock() { return &fHead; }
* Return the block that owns the allocated 'ptr'. Assuming that earlier, an allocation was
* returned as {b, start, alignedOffset, end}, and 'p = b->ptr(alignedOffset)', then a call
* to 'owningBlock<Align, Padding>(p, start) == b'.
* If calling code has already made a pointer to their metadata, i.e. 'm = p - Padding', then
* 'owningBlock<Align, 0>(m, start)' will also return b, allowing you to recover the block from
* the metadata pointer.
* If calling code has access to the original alignedOffset, this function should not be used
* since the owning block is just 'p - alignedOffset', regardless of original Align or Padding.
template <size_t Align, size_t Padding = 0>
Block* owningBlock(const void* ptr, int start);
template <size_t Align, size_t Padding = 0>
const Block* owningBlock(const void* ptr, int start) const {
return const_cast<GrBlockAllocator*>(this)->owningBlock<Align, Padding>(ptr, start);
* Find the owning block of the allocated pointer, 'p'. Without any additional information this
* is O(N) on the number of allocated blocks.
Block* findOwningBlock(const void* ptr);
const Block* findOwningBlock(const void* ptr) const {
return const_cast<GrBlockAllocator*>(this)->findOwningBlock(ptr);
* Explicitly free an entire block, invalidating any remaining allocations from the block.
* GrBlockAllocator will release all alive blocks automatically when it is destroyed, but this
* function can be used to reclaim memory over the lifetime of the allocator. The provided
* 'block' pointer must have previously come from a call to currentBlock() or allocate().
* If 'block' represents the inline-allocated head block, its cursor and metadata are instead
* reset to their defaults.
* If the block is not the head block, it may be kept as a scratch block to be reused for
* subsequent allocation requests, instead of making an entirely new block. A scratch block is
* not visible when iterating over blocks but is reported in the total size of the allocator.
void releaseBlock(Block* block);
* Detach every heap-allocated block owned by 'other' and concatenate them to this allocator's
* list of blocks. This memory is now managed by this allocator. Since this only transfers
* ownership of a Block, and a Block itself does not move, any previous allocations remain
* valid and associated with their original Block instances. GrBlockAllocator-level functions
* that accept allocated pointers (e.g. findOwningBlock), must now use this allocator and not
* 'other' for these allocations.
* The head block of 'other' cannot be stolen, so higher-level allocators and memory structures
* must handle that data differently.
void stealHeapBlocks(GrBlockAllocator* other);
* Explicitly free all blocks (invalidating all allocations), and resets the head block to its
* default state. The allocator-level metadata is reset to 0 as well.
void reset();
* Remove any reserved scratch space, either from calling reserve() or releaseBlock().
void resetScratchSpace();
template <bool Forward, bool Const> class BlockIter;
* Clients can iterate over all active Blocks in the GrBlockAllocator using for loops:
* Forward iteration from head to tail block (or non-const variant):
* for (const Block* b : this->blocks()) { }
* Reverse iteration from tail to head block:
* for (const Block* b : this->rblocks()) { }
* It is safe to call releaseBlock() on the active block while looping.
inline BlockIter<true, false> blocks();
inline BlockIter<true, true> blocks() const;
inline BlockIter<false, false> rblocks();
inline BlockIter<false, true> rblocks() const;
#ifdef SK_DEBUG
static constexpr int kAssignedMarker = 0xBEEFFACE;
static constexpr int kFreedMarker = 0xCAFEBABE;
void validate() const;
int testingOnly_scratchBlockSize() const { return this->scratchBlockSize(); }
static constexpr int kDataStart = sizeof(Block);
// This is an issue for WASM builds using emscripten, which had std::max_align_t = 16, but
// was returning pointers only aligned to 8 bytes.
// Setting this to 8 will let GrBlockAllocator properly correct for the pointer address if
// a 16-byte aligned allocation is requested in wasm (unlikely since we don't use long
// doubles).
static constexpr size_t kAddressAlign = 8;
// The alignment Block addresses will be at when created using operator new
// (spec-compliant is pointers are aligned to max_align_t).
static constexpr size_t kAddressAlign = alignof(std::max_align_t);
// Calculates the size of a new Block required to store a kMaxAllocationSize request for the
// given alignment and padding bytes. Also represents maximum valid fCursor value in a Block.
template<size_t Align, size_t Padding>
static constexpr size_t MaxBlockSize();
static constexpr int BaseHeadBlockSize() {
return sizeof(GrBlockAllocator) - offsetof(GrBlockAllocator, fHead);
// Append a new block to the end of the block linked list, updating fTail. 'minSize' must
// have enough room for sizeof(Block). 'maxSize' is the upper limit of fSize for the new block
// that will preserve the static guarantees GrBlockAllocator makes.
void addBlock(int minSize, int maxSize);
int scratchBlockSize() const { return fHead.fPrev ? fHead.fPrev->fSize : 0; }
Block* fTail; // All non-head blocks are heap allocated; tail will never be null.
// All remaining state is packed into 64 bits to keep GrBlockAllocator at 16 bytes + head block
// (on a 64-bit system).
// Growth of the block size is controlled by four factors: BlockIncrement, N0 and N1, and a
// policy defining how N0 is updated. When a new block is needed, we calculate N1' = N0 + N1.
// Depending on the policy, N0' = N0 (no growth or linear growth), or N0' = N1 (Fibonacci), or
// N0' = N1' (exponential). The size of the new block is N1' * BlockIncrement * MaxAlign,
// after which fN0 and fN1 store N0' and N1' clamped into 23 bits. With current bit allocations,
// N1' is limited to 2^24, and assuming MaxAlign=16, then BlockIncrement must be '2' in order to
// eventually reach the hard 2^29 size limit of GrBlockAllocator.
// Next heap block size = (fBlockIncrement * alignof(std::max_align_t) * (fN0 + fN1))
uint64_t fBlockIncrement : 16;
uint64_t fGrowthPolicy : 2; // GrowthPolicy
uint64_t fN0 : 23; // = 1 for linear/exp.; = 0 for fixed/fibonacci, initially
uint64_t fN1 : 23; // = 1 initially
// Inline head block, must be at the end so that it can utilize any additional reserved space
// from the initial allocation.
// The head block's prev pointer may be non-null, which signifies a scratch block that may be
// reused instead of allocating an entirely new block (this helps when allocate+release calls
// bounce back and forth across the capacity of a block).
alignas(kAddressAlign) Block fHead;
static_assert(kGrowthPolicyCount <= 4);
// A wrapper around GrBlockAllocator that includes preallocated storage for the head block.
// N will be the preallocSize() reported by the allocator.
template<size_t N>
class GrSBlockAllocator : SkNoncopyable {
using GrowthPolicy = GrBlockAllocator::GrowthPolicy;
GrSBlockAllocator() {
new (fStorage) GrBlockAllocator(GrowthPolicy::kFixed, N, N - sizeof(GrBlockAllocator));
explicit GrSBlockAllocator(GrowthPolicy policy) {
new (fStorage) GrBlockAllocator(policy, N, N - sizeof(GrBlockAllocator));
GrSBlockAllocator(GrowthPolicy policy, size_t blockIncrementBytes) {
new (fStorage) GrBlockAllocator(policy, blockIncrementBytes, N - sizeof(GrBlockAllocator));
~GrSBlockAllocator() {
GrBlockAllocator* operator->() { return this->allocator(); }
const GrBlockAllocator* operator->() const { return this->allocator(); }
GrBlockAllocator* allocator() { return reinterpret_cast<GrBlockAllocator*>(fStorage); }
const GrBlockAllocator* allocator() const {
return reinterpret_cast<const GrBlockAllocator*>(fStorage);
static_assert(N >= sizeof(GrBlockAllocator));
// Will be used to placement new the allocator
alignas(GrBlockAllocator) char fStorage[N];
// Template and inline implementations
template<size_t Align, size_t Padding>
constexpr size_t GrBlockAllocator::BlockOverhead() {
static_assert(GrAlignTo(kDataStart + Padding, Align) >= sizeof(Block));
return GrAlignTo(kDataStart + Padding, Align);
template<size_t Align, size_t Padding>
constexpr size_t GrBlockAllocator::Overhead() {
// NOTE: On most platforms, GrBlockAllocator is packed; this is not the case on debug builds
// due to extra fields, or on WASM due to 4byte pointers but 16byte max align.
return std::max(sizeof(GrBlockAllocator),
offsetof(GrBlockAllocator, fHead) + BlockOverhead<Align, Padding>());
template<size_t Align, size_t Padding>
constexpr size_t GrBlockAllocator::MaxBlockSize() {
// Without loss of generality, assumes 'align' will be the largest encountered alignment for the
// allocator (if it's not, the largest align will be encountered by the compiler and pass/fail
// the same set of static asserts).
return BlockOverhead<Align, Padding>() + kMaxAllocationSize;
template<size_t Align, size_t Padding>
void GrBlockAllocator::reserve(size_t size, ReserveFlags flags) {
if (size > kMaxAllocationSize) {
SK_ABORT("Allocation too large (%zu bytes requested)", size);
int iSize = (int) size;
if ((flags & kIgnoreExistingBytes_Flag) ||
this->currentBlock()->avail<Align, Padding>() < iSize) {
int blockSize = BlockOverhead<Align, Padding>() + iSize;
int maxSize = (flags & kIgnoreGrowthPolicy_Flag) ? blockSize
: MaxBlockSize<Align, Padding>();
SkASSERT((size_t) maxSize <= (MaxBlockSize<Align, Padding>()));
SkDEBUGCODE(auto oldTail = fTail;)
this->addBlock(blockSize, maxSize);
SkASSERT(fTail != oldTail);
// Releasing the just added block will move it into scratch space, allowing the original
// tail's bytes to be used first before the scratch block is activated.
template <size_t Align, size_t Padding>
GrBlockAllocator::ByteRange GrBlockAllocator::allocate(size_t size) {
// Amount of extra space for a new block to make sure the allocation can succeed.
static constexpr int kBlockOverhead = (int) BlockOverhead<Align, Padding>();
// Ensures 'offset' and 'end' calculations will be valid
static_assert((kMaxAllocationSize + GrAlignTo(MaxBlockSize<Align, Padding>(), Align))
<= (size_t) std::numeric_limits<int32_t>::max());
// Ensures size + blockOverhead + addBlock's alignment operations will be valid
static_assert(kMaxAllocationSize + kBlockOverhead + ((1 << 12) - 1) // 4K align for large blocks
<= std::numeric_limits<int32_t>::max());
if (size > kMaxAllocationSize) {
SK_ABORT("Allocation too large (%zu bytes requested)", size);
int iSize = (int) size;
int offset = fTail->cursor<Align, Padding>();
int end = offset + iSize;
if (end > fTail->fSize) {
this->addBlock(iSize + kBlockOverhead, MaxBlockSize<Align, Padding>());
offset = fTail->cursor<Align, Padding>();
end = offset + iSize;
// Check invariants
SkASSERT(end <= fTail->fSize);
SkASSERT(end - offset == iSize);
SkASSERT(offset - fTail->fCursor >= (int) Padding &&
offset - fTail->fCursor <= (int) (Padding + Align - 1));
SkASSERT(reinterpret_cast<uintptr_t>(fTail->ptr(offset)) % Align == 0);
int start = fTail->fCursor;
fTail->fCursor = end;
fTail->unpoisonRange(offset - Padding, end);
return {fTail, start, offset, end};
template <size_t Align, size_t Padding>
GrBlockAllocator::Block* GrBlockAllocator::owningBlock(const void* p, int start) {
// 'p' was originally formed by aligning 'block + start + Padding', producing the inequality:
// block + start + Padding <= p <= block + start + Padding + Align-1
// Rearranging this yields:
// block <= p - start - Padding <= block + Align-1
// Masking these terms by ~(Align-1) reconstructs 'block' if the alignment of the block is
// greater than or equal to Align (since block & ~(Align-1) == (block + Align-1) & ~(Align-1)
// in that case). Overalignment does not reduce to inequality unfortunately.
if /* constexpr */ (Align <= kAddressAlign) {
Block* block = reinterpret_cast<Block*>(
(reinterpret_cast<uintptr_t>(p) - start - Padding) & ~(Align - 1));
SkASSERT(block->fSentinel == kAssignedMarker);
return block;
} else {
// There's not a constant-time expression available to reconstruct the block from 'p',
// but this is unlikely to happen frequently.
return this->findOwningBlock(p);
template <size_t Align, size_t Padding>
int GrBlockAllocator::Block::alignedOffset(int offset) const {
// Aligning adds (Padding + Align - 1) as an intermediate step, so ensure that can't overflow
static_assert(MaxBlockSize<Align, Padding>() + Padding + Align - 1
<= (size_t) std::numeric_limits<int32_t>::max());
if /* constexpr */ (Align <= kAddressAlign) {
// Same as GrAlignTo, but operates on ints instead of size_t
return (offset + Padding + Align - 1) & ~(Align - 1);
} else {
// Must take into account that 'this' may be starting at a pointer that doesn't satisfy the
// larger alignment request, so must align the entire pointer, not just offset
uintptr_t blockPtr = reinterpret_cast<uintptr_t>(this);
uintptr_t alignedPtr = (blockPtr + offset + Padding + Align - 1) & ~(Align - 1);
SkASSERT(alignedPtr - blockPtr <= (uintptr_t) std::numeric_limits<int32_t>::max());
return (int) (alignedPtr - blockPtr);
bool GrBlockAllocator::Block::resize(int start, int end, int deltaBytes) {
SkASSERT(fSentinel == kAssignedMarker);
SkASSERT(start >= kDataStart && end <= fSize && start < end);
if (deltaBytes > kMaxAllocationSize || deltaBytes < -kMaxAllocationSize) {
// Cannot possibly satisfy the resize and could overflow subsequent math
return false;
if (fCursor == end) {
int nextCursor = end + deltaBytes;
SkASSERT(nextCursor >= start);
// We still check nextCursor >= start for release builds that wouldn't assert.
if (nextCursor <= fSize && nextCursor >= start) {
if (nextCursor < fCursor) {
// The allocation got smaller; poison the space that can no longer be used.
this->poisonRange(nextCursor + 1, end);
} else {
// The allocation got larger; unpoison the space that can now be used.
this->unpoisonRange(end, nextCursor);
fCursor = nextCursor;
return true;
return false;
// NOTE: release is equivalent to resize(start, end, start - end), and the compiler can optimize
// most of the operations away, but it wasn't able to remove the unnecessary branch comparing the
// new cursor to the block size or old start, so release() gets a specialization.
bool GrBlockAllocator::Block::release(int start, int end) {
SkASSERT(fSentinel == kAssignedMarker);
SkASSERT(start >= kDataStart && end <= fSize && start < end);
this->poisonRange(start, end);
if (fCursor == end) {
fCursor = start;
return true;
} else {
return false;
///////// Block iteration
template <bool Forward, bool Const>
class GrBlockAllocator::BlockIter {
using BlockT = typename std::conditional<Const, const Block, Block>::type;
using AllocatorT =
typename std::conditional<Const, const GrBlockAllocator, GrBlockAllocator>::type;
BlockIter(AllocatorT* allocator) : fAllocator(allocator) {}
class Item {
bool operator!=(const Item& other) const { return fBlock != other.fBlock; }
BlockT* operator*() const { return fBlock; }
Item& operator++() {
return *this;
friend BlockIter;
Item(BlockT* block) { this->advance(block); }
void advance(BlockT* block) {
fBlock = block;
fNext = block ? (Forward ? block->fNext : block->fPrev) : nullptr;
if (!Forward && fNext && fNext->isScratch()) {
// For reverse-iteration only, we need to stop at the head, not the scratch block
// possibly stashed in head->prev.
fNext = nullptr;
SkASSERT(!fNext || !fNext->isScratch());
BlockT* fBlock;
// Cache this before operator++ so that fBlock can be released during iteration
BlockT* fNext;
Item begin() const { return Item(Forward ? &fAllocator->fHead : fAllocator->fTail); }
Item end() const { return Item(nullptr); }
AllocatorT* fAllocator;
GrBlockAllocator::BlockIter<true, false> GrBlockAllocator::blocks() {
return BlockIter<true, false>(this);
GrBlockAllocator::BlockIter<true, true> GrBlockAllocator::blocks() const {
return BlockIter<true, true>(this);
GrBlockAllocator::BlockIter<false, false> GrBlockAllocator::rblocks() {
return BlockIter<false, false>(this);
GrBlockAllocator::BlockIter<false, true> GrBlockAllocator::rblocks() const {
return BlockIter<false, true>(this);
#endif // GrBlockAllocator_DEFINED