blob: bbcbb8f5cb057b67f7ef22cd6f4313b87ffd9893 [file] [log] [blame]
# Copyright (c) 1999-2001, International Business Machines
# Corporation and others. All Rights Reserved.
# Latin-Jamo
# Transliteration from Latin characters to Korean script is done in
# two steps: Latin to Jamo, then Jamo to Hangul. The Jamo-Hangul
# transliteration is done algorithmically following Unicode 3.0
# section 3.11. This file implements the Latin to Jamo
# transliteration using rules.
# Jamo occupy the block 1100-11FF. Within this block there are three
# groups of characters: initial consonants or choseong (I), medial
# vowels or jungseong (M), and trailing consonants or jongseong (F).
# Standard Korean syllables are of the form I+M+F*.
# Section 3.11 describes the use of 'filler' jamo to convert
# nonstandard syllables to standard form: the choseong filler 115F and
# the junseong filler 1160. In this transliterator, we will not use
# 115F or 1160.
# We will, however, insert two 'null' jamo to make foreign words
# conform to Korean syllable structure. These are the null initial
# consonant 110B (IEUNG) and the null vowel 1173 (EU). In Latin text,
# we will use the hyphen in order to disambiguate strings,
# e.g. "kan-ggan" (initial GG) vs. "kanggan" (final NG + initial G).
# We will not use all of the characters in the jamo block. We will
# only use the 19 initials, 21 medials, and 27 finals possessing a
# jamo short name as defined in section 4.4 of the Unicode book.
# Rules of thumb. These guidelines provide the basic framework
# for the rules. They are phrased in terms of Latin-Jamo transliteration.
# The Jamo-Latin rules derive from these, since the Jamo-Latin rules are
# just context-free transliteration of jamo to corresponding short names,
# with the addition of hyphens to maintain round-trip integrity
# in the context of the Latin-Jamo rules.
# A sequence of vowels:
# - Take the longest sequence you can. If there are too many, or you don't
# have a starting consonant, introduce a 110B necessary.
# A sequence of consonants.
# - First join the double consonants: G + G -> GG
# - In the remaining list,
# -- If there is no preceding vowel, take the first consonant, and insert EU
# after it. Continue with the rest of the consonants.
# -- If there is one consonant, attach to the following vowel
# -- If there are two consonants and a following vowel, attach one to the
# preceeding vowel, and one to the following vowel.
# -- If there are more than two consonants, join the first two together if you
# can: L + G => LG
# -- If you still end up with more than 2 consonants, insert EU after the
# first one, and continue with the rest of the consonants.
# Variables
# Some latin consonants or consonant pairs only occur as initials, and
# some only as finals, but some occur as both. This makes some jamo
# consonants ambiguous when transliterated into latin.
# Initial only: IEUNG BB DD JJ R
# Initial and Final: B C D G GG H J K M N P S SS T
$Gi = \u1100;
$GGi = \u1101;
$Ni = \u1102;
$Di = \u1103;
$DD = \u1104;
$R = \u1105;
$Mi = \u1106;
$Bi = \u1107;
$BB = \u1108;
$Si = \u1109;
$SSi = \u110A;
$IEUNG = \u110B; # null initial, inserted during Latin-Jamo
$Ji = \u110C;
$JJ = \u110D;
$Ci = \u110E;
$Ki = \u110F;
$Ti = \u1110;
$Pi = \u1111;
$Hi = \u1112;
$A = \u1161;
$AE = \u1162;
$YA = \u1163;
$YAE = \u1164;
$EO = \u1165;
$E = \u1166;
$YEO = \u1167;
$YE = \u1168;
$O = \u1169;
$WA = \u116A;
$WAE = \u116B;
$OE = \u116C;
$YO = \u116D;
$U = \u116E;
$WEO = \u116F;
$WE = \u1170;
$WI = \u1171;
$YU = \u1172;
$EU = \u1173; # null medial, inserted during Latin-Jamo
$YI = \u1174;
$I = \u1175;
$Gf = \u11A8;
$GGf = \u11A9;
$GS = \u11AA;
$Nf = \u11AB;
$NJ = \u11AC;
$NH = \u11AD;
$Df = \u11AE;
$L = \u11AF;
$LG = \u11B0;
$LM = \u11B1;
$LB = \u11B2;
$LS = \u11B3;
$LT = \u11B4;
$LP = \u11B5;
$LH = \u11B6;
$Mf = \u11B7;
$Bf = \u11B8;
$BS = \u11B9;
$Sf = \u11BA;
$SSf = \u11BB;
$NG = \u11BC;
$Jf = \u11BD;
$Cf = \u11BE;
$Kf = \u11BF;
$Tf = \u11C0;
$Pf = \u11C1;
$Hf = \u11C2;
$jamoInitial = [\u1100-\u1112];
$jamoMedial = [\u1161-\u1175];
$latinInitial = [bcdghjkmnprst];
# Any character in the latin transliteration of a medial
$latinMedial = [aeiouwy];
# The last character of the latin transliteration of a medial
$latinMedialEnd = [aeiou];
# Jamo-Latin
# Jamo to latin is relatively simple, since it is the latin that is
# ambiguous. Most rules are straightforward, and we encode them below
# as simple add-on back rule, e.g.:
# $jamoMedial {bs} > $BS;
# becomes
# $jamoMedial {bs} <> $BS;
# Furthermore, we don't care about the ordering for Jamo-Latin because
# we are going from single characters, so we can very easily piggyback
# on the Latin-Jamo.
# The main issue with Jamo-Latin is when to insert hyphens.
# Hyphens are inserted to obtain correct round trip behavior. For
# example, the sequence Ki A Gf Gi E, if transliterated to "kagge",
# would then round trip to Ki A GGi E. To prevent this, we insert a
# hyphen: "kag-ge". IMPORTANT: The need for hyphens depends
# very specifically on the behavior of the Latin-Jamo rules. A change
# in the Latin-Jamo behavior can completely change the way the
# hyphen insertion must be done.
# First try to preserve actual hyphens in the jamo text by doubling
# them. This fixes problems like:
# (Di)(A)(Ji)(U)(NG)-(IEUNG)(YEO)(Nf)(Gi)(YEO)(L) => dajung-yeongyeol
# => (Di)(A)(Ji)(U)(NG)(IEUNG)(YEO)(Nf)(Gi)(YEO)(L). This is optional
# -- if we don't care about losing hyphens in the jamo, we can delete
# this rule.
'--' <> '-';
# Triple consonants. For three consonants "axxx" we insert a
# hyphen between the first and second "x" if XXf, Xf, and Xi all
# exist, and we have A Xf XXi. This prevents the reverse
# transliteration to A XXf Xi.
'-' < $latinMedialEnd g {} $GGi;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd s {} $SSi;
# For vowels the rule is similar. If there is a vowel "ae" such that
# "a" by itself and "e" by itself are vowels, then we want to map A E
# to "a-e" so as not to round trip to AE. However, in the text Ki EO
# IEUNG E we don't need to map to "keo-e". "keoe" suffices. For
# vowels of the form "aei", both "ae" + "i" and "a" + "ei" must be
# tested. NOTE: These rules used to have a left context of
# $latinInitial instead of [^$latinMedial]. The problem with this is
# sequences where an initial IEUNG is transliterated away:
# (IEUNG)(A)(IEUNG)(EO) => aeo => (IEUNG)(AE)(IEUNG)(O)
'-' < [^$latinMedial] [y w] e {} [$O $OE];
'-' < [^$latinMedial] e {} [$O $OE $U];
'-' < [^$latinMedial] [o a] {} [$E $EO $EU];
'-' < [^$latinMedial] [w y] a {} [$E $EO $EU];
# Similar to the above, but with an intervening $IEUNG.
'-' < [^$latinMedial] [y w] e {} $IEUNG [$O $OE];
'-' < [^$latinMedial] e {} $IEUNG [$O $OE $U];
'-' < [^$latinMedial] [o a] {} $IEUNG [$E $EO $EU];
'-' < [^$latinMedial] [w y] a {} $IEUNG [$E $EO $EU];
# Single finals followed by IEUNG. The jamo sequence A Xf IEUNG E,
# where Xi also exists, must be transliterated as "ax-e" to prevent
# the round trip conversion to A Xi E.
'-' < $latinMedialEnd b {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd c {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd d {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd g {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd h {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd j {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd k {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd m {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd n {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd p {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd s {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd t {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
# Double finals followed by IEUNG. Similar to the single finals
# followed by IEUNG. Any latin consonant pair X Y, between medials,
# that we would split by Latin-Jamo, we must handle when it occurs as
# part of A XYf IEUNG E, to prevent round trip conversion to A Xf Yi
# E.
'-' < $latinMedialEnd b s {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd g g {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd g s {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd l b {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd l g {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd l h {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd l m {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd l p {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd l s {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd l t {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd n g {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd n h {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd n j {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd s s {} $IEUNG $jamoMedial;
# Split doubles. Text of the form A Xi Xf E, where XXi also occurs,
# we transliterate as "ax-xe" to prevent round trip transliteration as
# A XXi E.
'-' < $latinMedialEnd b {} $Bi $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd d {} $Di $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd j {} $Ji $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd g {} $Gi $jamoMedial;
'-' < $latinMedialEnd s {} $Si $jamoMedial;
# XYY. This corresponds to the XYY rule in Latin-Jamo. By default
# Latin-Jamo maps "xyy" to Xf YYi, to keep YY together. As a result,
# "xyy" forms that correspond to XYf Yi must be transliterated as
# "xy-y".
'-' < $latinMedialEnd b s {} [$Si $SSi];
'-' < $latinMedialEnd g s {} [$Si $SSi];
'-' < $latinMedialEnd l b {} [$Bi $BB];
'-' < $latinMedialEnd l g {} [$Gi $GGi];
'-' < $latinMedialEnd l s {} [$Si $SSi];
'-' < $latinMedialEnd n g {} [$Gi $GGi];
'-' < $latinMedialEnd n j {} [$Ji $JJ];
# Deletion of IEUNG is handled below.
# Latin-Jamo
# [Basic, context-free Jamo-Latin rules are embedded here too. See
# above.]
# Split digraphs: Text of the form 'axye', where 'xy' is a final
# digraph, 'x' is a final (by itself), 'y' is an initial, and 'a' and
# 'e' are medials, we want to transliterate this as A Xf Yi E rather
# than A XYf IEUNG E. We do NOT include text of the form "axxe",
# since that is handled differently below. These rules are generated
# programmatically from the jamo data.
$jamoMedial {b s} $latinMedial > $Bf $Si;
$jamoMedial {g s} $latinMedial > $Gf $Si;
$jamoMedial {l b} $latinMedial > $L $Bi;
$jamoMedial {l g} $latinMedial > $L $Gi;
$jamoMedial {l h} $latinMedial > $L $Hi;
$jamoMedial {l m} $latinMedial > $L $Mi;
$jamoMedial {l p} $latinMedial > $L $Pi;
$jamoMedial {l s} $latinMedial > $L $Si;
$jamoMedial {l t} $latinMedial > $L $Ti;
$jamoMedial {n g} $latinMedial > $Nf $Gi;
$jamoMedial {n h} $latinMedial > $Nf $Hi;
$jamoMedial {n j} $latinMedial > $Nf $Ji;
# Single consonants are initials: Text of the form 'axe', where 'x'
# can be an initial or a final, and 'a' and 'e' are medials, we want
# to transliterate as A Xi E rather than A Xf IEUNG E.
$jamoMedial {b} $latinMedial > $Bi;
$jamoMedial {c} $latinMedial > $Ci;
$jamoMedial {d} $latinMedial > $Di;
$jamoMedial {g} $latinMedial > $Gi;
$jamoMedial {h} $latinMedial > $Hi;
$jamoMedial {j} $latinMedial > $Ji;
$jamoMedial {k} $latinMedial > $Ki;
$jamoMedial {m} $latinMedial > $Mi;
$jamoMedial {n} $latinMedial > $Ni;
$jamoMedial {p} $latinMedial > $Pi;
$jamoMedial {s} $latinMedial > $Si;
$jamoMedial {t} $latinMedial > $Ti;
# Doubled initials. The sequence "axxe", where XX exists as an initial
# (XXi), and also Xi and Xf exist (true of all digraphs XX), we want
# to transliterate as A XXi E, rather than split to A Xf Xi E.
$jamoMedial {b b} $latinMedial > $BB;
$jamoMedial {d d} $latinMedial > $DD;
$jamoMedial {j j} $latinMedial > $JJ;
$jamoMedial {g g} $latinMedial > $GGi;
$jamoMedial {s s} $latinMedial > $SSi;
# XYY. Because doubled consonants bind more strongly than XY
# consonants, we must handle the sequence "axyy" specially. Here XYf
# and YYi must exist. In these cases, we map to Xf YYi rather than
# XYf.
$jamoMedial {b} s s > $Bf;
$jamoMedial {g} s s > $Gf;
$jamoMedial {l} b b > $L;
$jamoMedial {l} g g > $L;
$jamoMedial {l} s s > $L;
$jamoMedial {n} g g > $Nf;
$jamoMedial {n} j j > $Nf;
# Finals: Attach consonant with preceding medial to preceding medial.
# Do this BEFORE mapping consonants to initials. Longer keys must
# precede shorter keys that they start with, e.g., the rule for 'bs'
# must precede 'b'.
# [BASIC Jamo-Latin FINALS handled here. Order irrelevant within this
# block for Jamo-Latin.]
$jamoMedial {bs} <> $BS;
$jamoMedial {b} <> $Bf;
$jamoMedial {c} <> $Cf;
$jamoMedial {d} <> $Df;
$jamoMedial {gg} <> $GGf;
$jamoMedial {gs} <> $GS;
$jamoMedial {g} <> $Gf;
$jamoMedial {h} <> $Hf;
$jamoMedial {j} <> $Jf;
$jamoMedial {k} <> $Kf;
$jamoMedial {lb} <> $LB; $jamoMedial {lg} <> $LG;
$jamoMedial {lh} <> $LH;
$jamoMedial {lm} <> $LM;
$jamoMedial {lp} <> $LP;
$jamoMedial {ls} <> $LS;
$jamoMedial {lt} <> $LT;
$jamoMedial {l} <> $L;
$jamoMedial {m} <> $Mf;
$jamoMedial {ng} <> $NG;
$jamoMedial {nh} <> $NH;
$jamoMedial {nj} <> $NJ;
$jamoMedial {n} <> $Nf;
$jamoMedial {p} <> $Pf;
$jamoMedial {ss} <> $SSf;
$jamoMedial {s} <> $Sf;
$jamoMedial {t} <> $Tf;
# Initials: Attach single consonant to following medial. Do this
# AFTER mapping finals. Longer keys must precede shorter keys that
# they start with, e.g., the rule for 'gg' must precede 'g'.
# [BASIC Jamo-Latin INITIALS handled here. Order irrelevant within
# this block for Jamo-Latin.]
{gg} $latinMedial <> $GGi;
{g} $latinMedial <> $Gi;
{n} $latinMedial <> $Ni;
{dd} $latinMedial <> $DD;
{d} $latinMedial <> $Di;
{r} $latinMedial <> $R;
{m} $latinMedial <> $Mi;
{bb} $latinMedial <> $BB;
{b} $latinMedial <> $Bi;
{ss} $latinMedial <> $SSi;
{s} $latinMedial <> $Si;
{jj} $latinMedial <> $JJ;
{j} $latinMedial <> $Ji;
{c} $latinMedial <> $Ci;
{k} $latinMedial <> $Ki;
{t} $latinMedial <> $Ti;
{p} $latinMedial <> $Pi;
{h} $latinMedial <> $Hi;
# 'r' in final position. Because of the equivalency of the 'l' and
# 'r' jamo (the glyphs are the same), we try to provide the same
# equivalency in Latin-Jamo. The 'l' to 'r' conversion is handled
# below. If we see an 'r' in an apparent final position, treat it
# like 'l'. For example, "karka" => Ki A R EU Ki A without this rule.
# Instead, we want Ki A L Ki A.
$jamoMedial {r} $latinInitial > | l;
# Initial + Final: If we match the next rule, we have initial then
# final consonant with no intervening medial. We insert the null
# vowel BEFORE it to create a well-formed syllable. (In the next rule
# we insert a null vowel AFTER an anomalous initial.)
$jamoInitial {} [bcdghjklmnpst] > $EU;
# Initial + X: This block matches an initial consonant not followed by
# a medial. We insert the null vowel after it. We handle double
# initials explicitly here; for single initial consonants we insert EU
# (as Latin) after them and let standard rules do the rest.
gg > $GGi $EU;
dd > $DD $EU;
bb > $BB $EU;
ss > $SSi $EU;
jj > $JJ $EU;
([bcdghjkmnprst]) > | $1 eu;
# X + Final: Finally we have to deal with a consonant that can only be
# interpreted as a final (not an initial) and which is preceded
# neither by an initial nor a medial. It is the start of the
# syllable, but cannot be. Most of these will already be handled by
# the above rules. 'bs' splits into Bi EU Sf. Similar for 'gs' 'ng'
# 'nh' 'nj'. The only problem is 'l' and digraphs starting with 'l'.
# For this isolated case, we could add a null initial and medial,
# which would give "la" => IEUNG EU L IEUNG A, for example. A more
# economical solution is to transliterate isolated "l" (that is,
# initial "l") to "r". (Other similar conversions of consonants that
# occur neither as initials nor as finals are handled below.)
l > | r;
# Medials. If a medial is preceded by an initial, then we proceed
# normally. As usual, longer keys must precede shorter ones.
# [BASIC Jamo-Latin MEDIALS handled here. Order irrelevant within
# this block for Jamo-Latin.]
$jamoInitial {ae} <> $AE;
$jamoInitial {a} <> $A;
$jamoInitial {eo} <> $EO;
$jamoInitial {eu} <> $EU;
$jamoInitial {e} <> $E;
$jamoInitial {i} <> $I;
$jamoInitial {oe} <> $OE;
$jamoInitial {o} <> $O;
$jamoInitial {u} <> $U;
$jamoInitial {wae} <> $WAE;
$jamoInitial {wa} <> $WA;
$jamoInitial {weo} <> $WEO;
$jamoInitial {we} <> $WE;
$jamoInitial {wi} <> $WI;
$jamoInitial {yae} <> $YAE;
$jamoInitial {ya} <> $YA;
$jamoInitial {yeo} <> $YEO;
$jamoInitial {ye} <> $YE;
$jamoInitial {yi} <> $YI;
$jamoInitial {yo} <> $YO;
$jamoInitial {yu} <> $YU;
# We may see an anomalous isolated 'w' or 'y'. In that case, we
# interpret it as 'wi' and 'yu', respectively.
$jamoInitial {w} > | wi;
$jamoInitial {y} > | yu;
# Otherwise, insert a null consonant IEUNG before the medial (which is
# still an untransliterated latin vowel).
($latinMedial) > $IEUNG | $1;
# Convert non-jamo latin consonants to equivalents. These occur as
# neither initials nor finals in jamo. 'l' occurs as a final, but not
# an initial; it is handled above. The following letters (left hand
# side) will never be output by Jamo-Latin.
f > | p;
q > | k;
v > | b;
x > | ks;
z > | s;
# Delete hyphens (Latin-Jamo).
'-' > ;
# Delete null consonants (Jamo-Latin). Do NOT delete null EU vowels,
# since these may also occur in text.
# eof