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This folder contains
* Makefile skeletons for Apple MPW (Macintosh's Programmer's Workshop)
* Python script to generate MPW makefile from skeleton
* Metrowerks CodeWarrior 9.0 project file in XML format
1. What is this
Files in this directory are designed to build FreeType
running on classic MacOS. To build FreeType running on
Mac OS X, build as the system is UNIX.
However, Mac OS X is most useful to manipulate files in
vanilla FreeType to fit classic MacOS.
The information about MacOS specific API is written in
appendix of this document.
2. Requirement
You can use MPW: a free-charged developer environment
by Apple, or CodeWarrior: a commercial developer
environment by Metrowerks. GCC for MPW and Symantec
"Think C" are not tested at present.
2-1. Apple MPW
Following C compilers are tested:
m68k target: Apple SC 8.9.0d3e1
ppc target: Apple MrC 5.0.0d3c1
The final MPW-GM (official release on 1999/Dec) is too
old and cannot compile FreeType, because bundled C
compilers cannot search header files in sub directories.
Updating by the final MPW-PR (pre-release on 2001/Feb)
is required.
Required files are downloadable from:
Also you can find documents how to update by MPW-PR.
Python is required to restore MPW makefiles from the
skeletons. Python bundled to Mac OS X is enough. For
classic MacOS, MacPython is available:
MPW requires all files are typed by resource fork.
ResEdit bundled to MPW is enough. In Mac OS X,
/Developer/Tools/SetFile of DevTool is useful to
manipulate from commandline.
2-2. Metrowerks CodeWarrior
XML project file is generated and tested by
CodeWarrior 9.0. Older versions are not tested
at all. At present, static library for ppc target
is available in the project file.
3. How to build
3-1. Apple MPW
Detailed building procedure by Apple MPW is
described in following.
3-1-1. Generate MPW makefiles from the skeletons
Here are 4 skeletons for following targets are
- FreeType.m68k_far.make.txt
Ancient 32bit binary executable format for
m68k MacOS: System 6, with 32bit addressing
mode (far-pointer-model) So-called "Toolbox"
API is used.
- FreeType.m68k_cfm.make.txt
CFM binary executable format for m68k MacOS:
System 7. So-called "Toolbox" API is used.
- FreeType.ppc_classic.make.txt
CFM binary executable format for ppc MacOS:
System 7, MacOS 8, MacOS 9. So-called "Toolbox"
API is used.
- FreeType.ppc_carbon.make.txt
CFM binary executable format for ppc MacOS:
MacOS 9. Carbon API is used.
At present, static library is only supported,
although targets except of m68k_far are capable
to use shared library.
MPW makefile syntax uses 8bit characters. To keep
from violating them during version control, here
we store skeletons in pure ASCII format. You must
generate MPW makefile by Python script
In Mac OS X terminal, you can convert as:
python builds/mac/ \
< builds/mac/FreeType.m68k_far.make.txt \
> FreeType.m68k_far.make
The skeletons are designed to use in the top
directory where there are builds, include, src etc.
You must name the generated MPW makefile by removing
".txt" from source skeleton name.
3-1-2. Add resource forks to related files
MPW's Make and C compilers cannot recognize files
without resource fork. You have to add resource
fork to the files that MPW uses. In Mac OS X
terminal of the system, you can do as:
find . -name '*.[ch]' -exec \
/Developer/Tools/SetFile -a l -c "MPS " -t TEXT \{\} \;
find . -name '*.make' -exec \
/Developer/Tools/SetFile -a l -c "MPS " -t TEXT \{\} \;
3-1-3. Open MPW shell and build
Open MPW shell and go to the top directory that
FreeType sources are extracted (MPW makefile must
be located in there), from "Set Directory" in
"Directory" menu.
Choose "Build" from "Build" menu, and type the
name of project by removing ".make" from MPW
makefile, as: FreeType.m68k_far
If building is successfully finished, you can find
built library in objs/ directory.
3-2. Metrowerks CodeWarrior
Detailed building procedure by Metrowerks
CodeWarrior (CW) 9.0 is described in following.
3-2-1. Import XML project file
CW XML project file is not ready for double-
click. Start CodeWarrior IDE, and choose
"Import project" in "File" menu. Choose XML
project file: builds/mac/ftlib.prj.xml.
In next, you will be asked where to save CW
native project file: you must choose
"builds/mac/ftlib.prj". The project file is
designed with relative path from there. After
CW native project file is generated, it is
automatically loaded, small project window
titled "ftlib.prj" is displayed.
3-2-2. Building
Choose "Make" from "Project" menu. If building
is successfully finished, you can find built
library at objs/FreeTypeLib.
4-1. All modules should be included
At present, MPW makefiles and CW project file are
just updated versions of these by Leonard. Some
modules are added after the last maintenance, they
are not included.
4-2. Working test with ftdemos
At present, MPW makefiles and CW project file can
build FreeType for classic MacOS. But their working
behaviours are not tested at all. Building ftdemos
for classic MacOS and working test is required.
4-3. Porting Jam onto MPW
FreeType uses Jam (and FT-Jam) for unified cross-
platform building tool. At present, Jam is not ported
to MPW. To update classic MacOS support easily,
building by Jam is expected on MPW.
A-1. Framework dependencies
src/base/ftmac.c adds two Mac-specific features to
FreeType. These features are based on MacOS libraries.
* accessing resource-fork font
The fonts for classic MacOS store their graphical data
in resource forks which cannot be accessed via ANSI C
functions. FreeType2 provides functions to handle such
resource fork fonts, they are based on File Manager
framework of MacOS. In addition, HFS and HFS+ file
system driver of Linux is supported. Following
functions are for this purpose.
* resolving font name to font file
The font menu of MacOS application prefers font name
written in FOND resource than sfnt resource. FreeType2
provides functions to find font file by name in MacOS
application, they are based on QuickDraw Font Manager
and Apple Type Service framework of MacOS.
Working functions for each MacOS are summarized as
upto MacOS 6:
not tested (you have to obtain MPW 2.x)
MacOS 7.x, 8.x, 9.x (without CarbonLib):
MacOS 9.x (with CarbonLib):
Mac OS X upto 10.4.x:
FT_GetFile_From_Mac_Name() deprecated
FT_New_Face_From_FSSpec() deprecated
FT_GetFile_From_Mac_ATS_Name() deprecated?
A-2. Deprecated Functions
A-2-1. FileManager
For convenience to write MacOS application, ftmac.c
provides functions to specify a file by FSSpec and FSRef,
because the file identification pathname had ever been
unrecommended method in MacOS programming.
Toward to MacOS X 10.4 & 5, Carbon functions using FSSpec
datatype is noticed as deprecated, and recommended to
migrate to FSRef datatype. The big differences of FSRef
against FSSpec are explained in Apple TechNotes 2078.
- filename length: the max length of file
name of FSRef is 255 chars (it is limit of HFS+),
that of FSSpec is 31 chars (it is limit of HFS).
- filename encoding: FSSpec is localized by
legacy encoding for each language system,
FSRef is Unicode enabled.
A-2-2. FontManager
Following functions receive QuickDraw fontname:
QuickDraw is deprecated and replaced by Quartz
since Mac OS X 10.4. They are still kept for
backward compatibility. By undefinition of
HAVE_QUICKDRAW in building, you can change these
functions to return FT_Err_Unimplemented always.
Replacement functions are added for migration.
They are usable on Mac OS X only. On older systems,
these functions return FT_Err_Unimplemented always.
The detailed incompatibilities and possibility
of FontManager emulation without QuickDraw is
explained in
A-3. Framework Availabilities
The framework of MacOS are often revised, especially
when new format of binary executable is introduced.
Following table is the minimum version of frameworks
to use functions used in FreeType2. The table is
extracted from MPW header files for assembly language.
*** NOTE ***
The conditional definition of available data type
in MPW compiler is insufficient. You can compile
program using FSRef data type for older systems
(MacOS 7, 8) that don't know FSRef data type.
CPU | mc680x0 | PowerPC |
Binary Executable Format | Classic | 68K-CFM | CFM | CFM | Mach-O |
Framework API | Toolbox | Toolbox | Toolbox | Carbon | Carbon |
| ?(*) |Interface|Interface|CarbonLib|Mac OS X |
| |Lib |Lib | | |
* Files.h +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
PBGetFCBInfoSync() | o | 7.1- | 7.1- | 1.0- | o |
FSMakeFSSpec() | o | 7.1- | 7.1- | 1.0- | o |
FSGetForkCBInfo() | o | (**) | 9.0- | 1.0- | o |
FSpMakeFSRef() | o | (**) | 9.0- | 1.0- | o |
FSGetCatalogInfo() | o | (**) | 9.0- | 1.0- | -10.3 |
FSPathMakeRef() | x | x | x | 1.1- | -10.3 |
| ?(*) |Font |Font |CarbonLib|Mac OS X |
| |Manager |Manager | | |
* Fonts.h +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
FMCreateFontFamilyIterator() | x | x | 9.0- | 1.0- | -10.3 |
FMDisposeFontFamilyIterator() | x | x | 9.0- | 1.0- | -10.3 |
FMGetNextFontFamily() | x | x | 9.0- | 1.0- | -10.3 |
FMGetFontFamilyName() | x | x | 9.0- | 1.0- | -10.3 |
FMCreateFontFamilyInstanceIterator() | x | x | 9.0- | 1.0- | -10.3 |
FMDisposeFontFamilyInstanceIterator() | x | x | 9.0- | 1.0- | -10.3 |
FMGetNextFontFamilyInstance() | x | x | 9.0- | 1.0- | -10.3 |
| - | - | - |CarbonLib|Mac OS X |
* ATSFont.h (***) +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
ATSFontFindFromName() | x | x | x | x | o |
ATSFontGetFileSpecification() | x | x | x | x | o |
In the "Classic": the original binary executable
format, these framework functions are directly
transformed to MacOS system call. Therefore, the
exact availability should be checked by running
InterfaceLib is bundled to MacOS and its version
is usually equal to MacOS. There's no separate
update for InterfaceLib. It is supposed that
there's no InterfaceLib 9.x for m68k platforms.
In fact, these functions are FSRef dependent.
ATSUI framework is available on ATSUnicode 8.5 on
ppc Toolbox CFM, CarbonLib 1.0 too. But its base:
ATS font manager is not published in these versions.
Last update: 2013-Nov-03.
Currently maintained by
suzuki toshiya, <>
Originally prepared by
Leonard Rosenthol, <>
Just van Rossum, <>