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// Copyright (c) 2015-2016 The Khronos Group Inc.
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.
#include "source/val/validate.h"
#include <algorithm>
#include <cassert>
#include <cstdio>
#include <functional>
#include <iterator>
#include <memory>
#include <sstream>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
#include "source/binary.h"
#include "source/diagnostic.h"
#include "source/enum_string_mapping.h"
#include "source/extensions.h"
#include "source/instruction.h"
#include "source/opcode.h"
#include "source/operand.h"
#include "source/spirv_constant.h"
#include "source/spirv_endian.h"
#include "source/spirv_target_env.h"
#include "source/spirv_validator_options.h"
#include "source/val/construct.h"
#include "source/val/function.h"
#include "source/val/instruction.h"
#include "source/val/validation_state.h"
#include "spirv-tools/libspirv.h"
namespace {
// TODO(issue 1950): The validator only returns a single message anyway, so no
// point in generating more than 1 warning.
static uint32_t kDefaultMaxNumOfWarnings = 1;
} // namespace
namespace spvtools {
namespace val {
namespace {
// Parses OpExtension instruction and registers extension.
void RegisterExtension(ValidationState_t& _,
const spv_parsed_instruction_t* inst) {
const std::string extension_str = spvtools::GetExtensionString(inst);
Extension extension;
if (!GetExtensionFromString(extension_str.c_str(), &extension)) {
// The error will be logged in the ProcessInstruction pass.
// Parses the beginning of the module searching for OpExtension instructions.
// Registers extensions if recognized. Returns SPV_REQUESTED_TERMINATION
// once an instruction which is not SpvOpCapability and SpvOpExtension is
// encountered. According to the SPIR-V spec extensions are declared after
// capabilities and before everything else.
spv_result_t ProcessExtensions(void* user_data,
const spv_parsed_instruction_t* inst) {
const SpvOp opcode = static_cast<SpvOp>(inst->opcode);
if (opcode == SpvOpCapability) return SPV_SUCCESS;
if (opcode == SpvOpExtension) {
ValidationState_t& _ = *(reinterpret_cast<ValidationState_t*>(user_data));
RegisterExtension(_, inst);
// OpExtension block is finished, requesting termination.
spv_result_t ProcessInstruction(void* user_data,
const spv_parsed_instruction_t* inst) {
ValidationState_t& _ = *(reinterpret_cast<ValidationState_t*>(user_data));
auto* instruction = _.AddOrderedInstruction(inst);
spv_result_t ValidateForwardDecls(ValidationState_t& _) {
if (_.unresolved_forward_id_count() == 0) return SPV_SUCCESS;
std::stringstream ss;
std::vector<uint32_t> ids = _.UnresolvedForwardIds();
std::begin(ids), std::end(ids),
std::ostream_iterator<std::string>(ss, " "),
bind(&ValidationState_t::getIdName, std::ref(_), std::placeholders::_1));
auto id_str = ss.str();
return _.diag(SPV_ERROR_INVALID_ID, nullptr)
<< "The following forward referenced IDs have not been defined:\n"
<< id_str.substr(0, id_str.size() - 1);
std::vector<std::string> CalculateNamesForEntryPoint(ValidationState_t& _,
const uint32_t id) {
auto id_descriptions = _.entry_point_descriptions(id);
auto id_names = std::vector<std::string>();
for (auto description : id_descriptions) id_names.push_back(;
return id_names;
spv_result_t ValidateEntryPointNameUnique(ValidationState_t& _,
const uint32_t id) {
auto id_names = CalculateNamesForEntryPoint(_, id);
const auto names =
std::unordered_set<std::string>(id_names.begin(), id_names.end());
if (id_names.size() != names.size()) {
std::sort(id_names.begin(), id_names.end());
for (size_t i = 0; i < id_names.size() - 1; i++) {
if (id_names[i] == id_names[i + 1]) {
return _.diag(SPV_ERROR_INVALID_BINARY, _.FindDef(id))
<< "Entry point name \"" << id_names[i]
<< "\" is not unique, which is not allow in WebGPU env.";
for (const auto other_id : _.entry_points()) {
if (other_id == id) continue;
const auto other_id_names = CalculateNamesForEntryPoint(_, other_id);
for (const auto other_id_name : other_id_names) {
if (names.find(other_id_name) != names.end()) {
return _.diag(SPV_ERROR_INVALID_BINARY, _.FindDef(id))
<< "Entry point name \"" << other_id_name
<< "\" is not unique, which is not allow in WebGPU env.";
spv_result_t ValidateEntryPointNamesUnique(ValidationState_t& _) {
for (const auto id : _.entry_points()) {
auto result = ValidateEntryPointNameUnique(_, id);
if (result != SPV_SUCCESS) return result;
// Entry point validation. Based on 2.16.1 (Universal Validation Rules) of the
// SPIRV spec:
// * There is at least one OpEntryPoint instruction, unless the Linkage
// capability is being used.
// * No function can be targeted by both an OpEntryPoint instruction and an
// OpFunctionCall instruction.
// Additionally enforces that entry points for Vulkan and WebGPU should not have
// recursion. And that entry names should be unique for WebGPU.
spv_result_t ValidateEntryPoints(ValidationState_t& _) {
if (_.entry_points().empty() && !_.HasCapability(SpvCapabilityLinkage)) {
return _.diag(SPV_ERROR_INVALID_BINARY, nullptr)
<< "No OpEntryPoint instruction was found. This is only allowed if "
"the Linkage capability is being used.";
for (const auto& entry_point : _.entry_points()) {
if (_.IsFunctionCallTarget(entry_point)) {
return _.diag(SPV_ERROR_INVALID_BINARY, _.FindDef(entry_point))
<< "A function (" << entry_point
<< ") may not be targeted by both an OpEntryPoint instruction and "
"an OpFunctionCall instruction.";
// For Vulkan and WebGPU, the static function-call graph for an entry point
// must not contain cycles.
if (spvIsVulkanOrWebGPUEnv(_.context()->target_env)) {
if (_.recursive_entry_points().find(entry_point) !=
_.recursive_entry_points().end()) {
return _.diag(SPV_ERROR_INVALID_BINARY, _.FindDef(entry_point))
<< "Entry points may not have a call graph with cycles.";
// For WebGPU all entry point names must be unique.
if (spvIsWebGPUEnv(_.context()->target_env)) {
const auto result = ValidateEntryPointNamesUnique(_);
if (result != SPV_SUCCESS) return result;
spv_result_t ValidateBinaryUsingContextAndValidationState(
const spv_context_t& context, const uint32_t* words, const size_t num_words,
spv_diagnostic* pDiagnostic, ValidationState_t* vstate) {
auto binary = std::unique_ptr<spv_const_binary_t>(
new spv_const_binary_t{words, num_words});
spv_endianness_t endian;
spv_position_t position = {};
if (spvBinaryEndianness(binary.get(), &endian)) {
return DiagnosticStream(position, context.consumer, "",
<< "Invalid SPIR-V magic number.";
if (spvIsWebGPUEnv(context.target_env) && endian != SPV_ENDIANNESS_LITTLE) {
return DiagnosticStream(position, context.consumer, "",
<< "WebGPU requires SPIR-V to be little endian.";
spv_header_t header;
if (spvBinaryHeaderGet(binary.get(), endian, &header)) {
return DiagnosticStream(position, context.consumer, "",
<< "Invalid SPIR-V header.";
if (header.version > spvVersionForTargetEnv(context.target_env)) {
return DiagnosticStream(position, context.consumer, "",
<< "Invalid SPIR-V binary version "
<< SPV_SPIRV_VERSION_MAJOR_PART(header.version) << "."
<< " for target environment "
<< spvTargetEnvDescription(context.target_env) << ".";
if (header.bound > vstate->options()->universal_limits_.max_id_bound) {
return DiagnosticStream(position, context.consumer, "",
<< "Invalid SPIR-V. The id bound is larger than the max id bound "
<< vstate->options()->universal_limits_.max_id_bound << ".";
// Look for OpExtension instructions and register extensions.
// This parse should not produce any error messages. Hijack the context and
// replace the message consumer so that we do not pollute any state in input
// consumer.
spv_context_t hijacked_context = context;
hijacked_context.consumer = [](spv_message_level_t, const char*,
const spv_position_t&, const char*) {};
spvBinaryParse(&hijacked_context, vstate, words, num_words,
/* parsed_header = */ nullptr, ProcessExtensions,
/* diagnostic = */ nullptr);
// Parse the module and perform inline validation checks. These checks do
// not require the the knowledge of the whole module.
if (auto error = spvBinaryParse(&context, vstate, words, num_words,
/*parsed_header =*/nullptr,
ProcessInstruction, pDiagnostic)) {
return error;
for (auto& instruction : vstate->ordered_instructions()) {
// In order to do this work outside of Process Instruction we need to be
// able to, briefly, de-const the instruction.
Instruction* inst = const_cast<Instruction*>(&instruction);
if (inst->opcode() == SpvOpEntryPoint) {
const auto entry_point = inst->GetOperandAs<uint32_t>(1);
const auto execution_model = inst->GetOperandAs<SpvExecutionModel>(0);
const char* str = reinterpret_cast<const char*>(
inst->words().data() + inst->operand(2).offset);
ValidationState_t::EntryPointDescription desc; = str;
std::vector<uint32_t> interfaces;
for (size_t j = 3; j < inst->operands().size(); ++j)
vstate->RegisterEntryPoint(entry_point, execution_model,
if (inst->opcode() == SpvOpFunctionCall) {
if (!vstate->in_function_body()) {
return vstate->diag(SPV_ERROR_INVALID_LAYOUT, &instruction)
<< "A FunctionCall must happen within a function body.";
const auto called_id = inst->GetOperandAs<uint32_t>(2);
if (spvIsWebGPUEnv(context.target_env) &&
!vstate->IsFunctionCallDefined(called_id)) {
return vstate->diag(SPV_ERROR_INVALID_LAYOUT, &instruction)
<< "For WebGPU, functions need to be defined before being "
if (vstate->in_function_body()) {
if (vstate->in_block() && spvOpcodeIsBlockTerminator(inst->opcode())) {
if (auto error = IdPass(*vstate, inst)) return error;
if (auto error = CapabilityPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = DataRulesPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = ModuleLayoutPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = CfgPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = InstructionPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
// Now that all of the checks are done, update the state.
Instruction* inst = const_cast<Instruction*>(&instruction);
if (!vstate->has_memory_model_specified())
return vstate->diag(SPV_ERROR_INVALID_LAYOUT, nullptr)
<< "Missing required OpMemoryModel instruction.";
if (vstate->in_function_body())
return vstate->diag(SPV_ERROR_INVALID_LAYOUT, nullptr)
<< "Missing OpFunctionEnd at end of module.";
// Catch undefined forward references before performing further checks.
if (auto error = ValidateForwardDecls(*vstate)) return error;
// ID usage needs be handled in its own iteration of the instructions,
// between the two others. It depends on the first loop to have been
// finished, so that all instructions have been registered. And the following
// loop depends on all of the usage data being populated. Thus it cannot live
// in either of those iterations.
// It should also live after the forward declaration check, since it will
// have problems with missing forward declarations, but give less useful error
// messages.
for (size_t i = 0; i < vstate->ordered_instructions().size(); ++i) {
auto& instruction = vstate->ordered_instructions()[i];
if (auto error = UpdateIdUse(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
// Validate individual opcodes.
for (size_t i = 0; i < vstate->ordered_instructions().size(); ++i) {
auto& instruction = vstate->ordered_instructions()[i];
// Keep these passes in the order they appear in the SPIR-V specification
// sections to maintain test consistency.
if (auto error = MiscPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = DebugPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = AnnotationPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = ExtensionPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = ModeSettingPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = TypePass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = ConstantPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = MemoryPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = FunctionPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = ImagePass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = ConversionPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = CompositesPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = ArithmeticsPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = BitwisePass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = LogicalsPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = ControlFlowPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = DerivativesPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = AtomicsPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = PrimitivesPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = BarriersPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
// Group
// Device-Side Enqueue
// Pipe
if (auto error = NonUniformPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
if (auto error = LiteralsPass(*vstate, &instruction)) return error;
// Validate the preconditions involving adjacent instructions. e.g. SpvOpPhi
// must only be preceeded by SpvOpLabel, SpvOpPhi, or SpvOpLine.
if (auto error = ValidateAdjacency(*vstate)) return error;
if (auto error = ValidateEntryPoints(*vstate)) return error;
// CFG checks are performed after the binary has been parsed
// and the CFGPass has collected information about the control flow
if (auto error = PerformCfgChecks(*vstate)) return error;
if (auto error = CheckIdDefinitionDominateUse(*vstate)) return error;
if (auto error = ValidateDecorations(*vstate)) return error;
if (auto error = ValidateInterfaces(*vstate)) return error;
// TODO(dsinclair): Restructure ValidateBuiltins so we can move into the
// for() above as it loops over all ordered_instructions internally.
if (auto error = ValidateBuiltIns(*vstate)) return error;
// These checks must be performed after individual opcode checks because
// those checks register the limitation checked here.
for (const auto inst : vstate->ordered_instructions()) {
if (auto error = ValidateExecutionLimitations(*vstate, &inst)) return error;
if (auto error = ValidateSmallTypeUses(*vstate, &inst)) return error;
} // namespace
spv_result_t ValidateBinaryAndKeepValidationState(
const spv_const_context context, spv_const_validator_options options,
const uint32_t* words, const size_t num_words, spv_diagnostic* pDiagnostic,
std::unique_ptr<ValidationState_t>* vstate) {
spv_context_t hijack_context = *context;
if (pDiagnostic) {
*pDiagnostic = nullptr;
UseDiagnosticAsMessageConsumer(&hijack_context, pDiagnostic);
vstate->reset(new ValidationState_t(&hijack_context, options, words,
num_words, kDefaultMaxNumOfWarnings));
return ValidateBinaryUsingContextAndValidationState(
hijack_context, words, num_words, pDiagnostic, vstate->get());
} // namespace val
} // namespace spvtools
spv_result_t spvValidate(const spv_const_context context,
const spv_const_binary binary,
spv_diagnostic* pDiagnostic) {
return spvValidateBinary(context, binary->code, binary->wordCount,
spv_result_t spvValidateBinary(const spv_const_context context,
const uint32_t* words, const size_t num_words,
spv_diagnostic* pDiagnostic) {
spv_context_t hijack_context = *context;
if (pDiagnostic) {
*pDiagnostic = nullptr;
spvtools::UseDiagnosticAsMessageConsumer(&hijack_context, pDiagnostic);
// This interface is used for default command line options.
spv_validator_options default_options = spvValidatorOptionsCreate();
// Create the ValidationState using the context and default options.
spvtools::val::ValidationState_t vstate(&hijack_context, default_options,
words, num_words,
spv_result_t result =
hijack_context, words, num_words, pDiagnostic, &vstate);
return result;
spv_result_t spvValidateWithOptions(const spv_const_context context,
spv_const_validator_options options,
const spv_const_binary binary,
spv_diagnostic* pDiagnostic) {
spv_context_t hijack_context = *context;
if (pDiagnostic) {
*pDiagnostic = nullptr;
spvtools::UseDiagnosticAsMessageConsumer(&hijack_context, pDiagnostic);
// Create the ValidationState using the context.
spvtools::val::ValidationState_t vstate(&hijack_context, options,
binary->code, binary->wordCount,
return spvtools::val::ValidateBinaryUsingContextAndValidationState(
hijack_context, binary->code, binary->wordCount, pDiagnostic, &vstate);