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# © 2016 and later: Unicode, Inc. and others.
# License & terms of use: http://www.unicode.org/copyright.html#License
#
# File: am_am_FONIPA.txt
# Generated from CLDR
#
# Transforms Amharic (am) to Amharic in phonemic IPA transcription (am_FONIPA).
#
# Long vowels, long/geminated consonants:
# In the direction from am_FONIPA to am, we emit Ethiopic gemination
# and vowel length markers (U+135D, U+135E, U+135F) although
# they are rarely written in Amharic text. Exceptions include
# school books and textbooks for non-native speakers.
# Clients who do not want these markers can easily strip them off
# in a post-processing step.
#
# Labialization:
# Amharic speakers will usually say ሟ as [mʷa] instead of [mwa];
# labializing [m] instead of saying [m] followed by a separate [w].
# Most Amharic consonants can get labialized. To keep the phonemic
# transcription simple, we emit /m/ + /w/; otherwise, our phoneme
# set would almost double, and it would include very unusual phonemes
# such as /ɲʷ/ or /t\u0361ʃʼʷ/.
#
# References:
# [1] The Ge’ez Frontier Foundation: “Principles and Specification
# for Mnemonic Ethiopic Keyboards.” Version of January 17, 2009;
# retrieved on November 4, 2014.
# http://keyboards.ethiopic.org/specification/GFF-MnemonicEthiopicKeyboardSpecification.pdf
# Other than most online sources, this report uses correct IPA notation
# with the exception of /j/, which it consistently (but wrongly)
# writes as */y/.
$IPA_VOWEL = [aeəiɨou];
$IPA_CONSONANT = [mnɲɴ p{pʼ}bt{tʼ}dk{kʼ}ɡʔʕ fvs{sʼ}zʃʒxh lr {t\u0361ʃ}{t\u0361ʃʼ}{d\u0361ʒ}];
# Some consonants have a special syllable when labialized, such as ፗ ↔ /pʷa/.
# Amharic restricts this mostly to /a/ syllables. While the Ethiopic script
# does offer labialized syllables for other vowels, these are typically
# not written in Amharic.
$LABIALIZABLE_BEFORE_A = [p{pʼ}t{tʼ} {t\u0361ʃ}{t\u0361ʃʼ}{d\u0361ʒ}{d\u0361ʒʼ} s{sʼ}zʃʒ fv r];
[ ʼ \u0361 \u035C \u032F];
::(null);
# Appendix B of [1] transcribes ሀ as /hə/. However, according to
# an Amharic-speaking person, there is no /hə/ sequence
# in Amharic; instead, it gets pronounced as /ha/.
ha;
hə;
hu;
hi;
ha;
he;
hɨ;
ho;
ho; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /hɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
h;
lə;
lu;
li;
la;
le;
lɨ;
lo;
lo; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /lɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
lwa;
l;
# Appendix B of [1] transcribes ሐ as Voiceless pharyngeal fricative
# /ħə/. However, according to an Amharic-speaking person, Amharic
# makes no difference in pronunciation between ሐ...ሓ and ሀ...ሃ; both
# are pronounced as Voiceless glottal fricative /h/. Also, according
# to the speaker there is no /hə/ sequence in Amharic; instead, it
# gets pronounced as /ha/.
ha;
hu;
hi;
ha;
he;
hɨ;
ho;
hwa;
mə;
mu;
mi;
ma;
me;
mɨ;
mo;
mo; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /mɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
mwə; # Sebatbeit /mwə/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
mwu; # Sebatbeit /mwu/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
mwi; # Sebatbeit /mwi/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
mwa;
mwe; # Sebatbeit /mwe/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
mja; # Unclear which language; Appendix L of [1] transcribes ፙ as /mʲa/.
m;
sə;
su;
si;
sa;
se;
sɨ;
so;
swa;
rə;
ru;
ri;
ra;
re;
rɨ;
ro;
ro; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /rɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
rwa;
rja; # Unclear which language; Appendix L of [1] transcribes ፘ as /rʲa/.
r;
# Amharic speakers pronounce ⶠ like ሸ. Source: [1], Appendix B.
ʃə;
ʃu;
ʃi;
ʃa;
ʃe;
ʃɨ;
ʃo;
ʃə;
ʃu;
ʃi;
ʃa;
ʃe;
ʃɨ;
ʃo;
ʃo; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /ʃɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
ʃwa;
ʃ;
kʼə;
kʼu;
kʼi;
kʼa;
kʼe;
kʼɨ;
kʼo;
kʼo; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /kʼɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
kʼwə;
kʼwu;
kʼwi;
kʼwa;
kʼwe;
kʼ;
# In Awngi, Blin, Qimant, and Xamtanga, ቐ is spoken as voiced uvular fricative [ʁ].
# Source: [1], Appendix C. However, */ʁ/ is not an Amharic phoneme.
# When reading foreign words with ቐ, Amharic speakers pronounce
# ቐ like ቀ, i.e. as velar ejective /kʼ/.
kʼə;
kʼu;
kʼi;
kʼa;
kʼe;
kʼɨ;
kʼo;
kʼwə;
kʼwu;
kʼwi;
kʼwa;
kʼwe;
# In Sebatbeit, ⷀ is spoken as palatalized velar ejective /kʼʲ/ ([1], Appendix H).
# In Amharic, the syllable is not used, but it might appear in names.
kʼjə;
kʼju;
kʼji;
kʼja;
kʼje;
kʼjɨ;
kʼjo;
bə;
bu;
bi;
ba;
be;
bɨ;
bo;
bo; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /bɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
bwə; # Sebatbeit /bʷə/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
bwu; # Sebatbeit /bʷu/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
bwi; # Sebatbeit /bʷi/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
bwa; # Sebatbeit /bʷa/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
bwe; # Sebatbeit /bʷe/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
b;
və;
vu;
vi;
va;
ve;
vɨ;
vo;
vwa;
v;
# Unclear which Ethiopic language uses ⶨ. It only appears in the
# “Language Neutral” list of Appendix L in [1], which transcribes it as t\u0361ʃ.
# For Amharic, we pronounce ⶨ therefore like ቸ.
t\u0361ʃə;
t\u0361ʃu;
t\u0361ʃi;
t\u0361ʃa;
t\u0361ʃe;
t\u0361ʃɨ;
t\u0361ʃo;
# In Amharic, ኀ is pronounced like ሀ.
# Source: [1], section on “Phonological Redundancy” for Amharic, page 5.
# Appendix B of [1] transcribes ሀ as /hə/. However, according to
# an Amharic-speaking person, there is no /hə/ sequence in Amharic.
# Instead, ሀ (and hence also ኀ) gets pronounced as /ha/.
ha;
hu;
hi;
ha;
he;
hɨ;
ho;
ho; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /ŋɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
hwə;
hwu;
hwi;
hwa;
hwe;
nə;
nu;
ni;
na;
ne;
nɨ;
no;
no; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /nɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
nwa;
n;
ɲə;
ɲu;
ɲi;
ɲa;
ɲe;
ɲɨ;
ɲo;
ɲo; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /ɲɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
ɲwa;
ɲ;
# Amharic speakers pronounce ኸ as [h] because Amharic has no [x] sound.
# However, in transliterations of foreign (eg. Spanish) words with [x],
# several Amharic speakers have confirmed that they prefer ኻ over ሃ.
hwə;
hwi;
hwa;
hwe;
hwɨ;
hə;
hu;
hi;
ha;
he;
hɨ;
ho;
xwə;
xwi;
xwa;
xwe;
xwɨ;
xw;
xə;
xu;
xi;
xa;
xe;
xɨ;
xo;
x;
ʔə;
ʔu;
ʔi;
ʔa;
ʔe;
ʔɨ;
ʔo;
ʔo; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /ɲɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
ʔ;
kə;
ku;
ki;
ka;
ke;
kɨ;
ko;
kwə;
kwu;
kwi;
kwa;
kwe;
k;
# In Sebatbeit, ⷈ is spoken as palatalized velar plosive /kʲ/ ([1], Appendix H).
# Amharic speakers pronounce it as /k/ without palatalization.
kə;
ku;
ki;
ka;
ke;
kɨ;
ko;
# In Sebatbeit, ⷐ is spoken as palatalized voiceless velar fricative/xʲə/
# according to [1], Appendix H. When the syllable appears in names,
# Amharic speakers pronounce it as /kə/ without palatalization.
kə;
ku;
ki;
ka;
ke;
kɨ;
ko;
wə;
wu;
wi;
wa;
we;
wɨ;
wo;
wo; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /wɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
w;
ʕə;
ʕu;
ʕi;
ʕa;
ʕe;
ʕɨ;
ʕo;
ʕ;
zə;
zu;
zi;
za;
ze;
zɨ;
zo;
zo; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /zɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
zwa;
z;
ʒə;
ʒu;
ʒi;
ʒa;
ʒe;
ʒɨ;
ʒo;
ʒwa;
ʒ;
# Unclear which Ethiopic language uses ⶰ. It only appears in the
# “Language Neutral” list of Appendix L in [1], which transcribes it as ʒ.
# For Amharic, we pronounce ⶰ therefore like ዠ.
ʒə;
ʒu;
ʒi;
ʒa;
ʒe;
ʒɨ;
ʒo;
jə;
ju;
ji;
ja;
je;
jɨ;
jo;
jo; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /zɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
j;
d\u0361ʒə;
d\u0361ʒu;
d\u0361ʒi;
d\u0361ʒa;
d\u0361ʒe;
d\u0361ʒɨ;
d\u0361ʒo;
d\u0361ʒwa;
d\u0361ʒ;
də;
du;
di;
da;
de;
dɨ;
do;
do; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /zɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
dwa;
d;
ɡə;
ɡu;
ɡi;
ɡa;
ɡe;
ɡɨ;
ɡo;
ɡwə;
ɡwu;
ɡwi;
ɡwa;
ɡwe;
ɡ;
# In Awngi, Blin, Qimant, and Xamtanga, ጘ is spoken as voiced velar nasal [ŋ].
# Source: [1], Appendix C. While /ŋ/ is not an Amharic phoneme, Amharic speakers
# still can pronounce it according to our source. However, when transliterating
# foreign words with [ŋ], Amharic uses the sequence ንግ /nɡ/. For example,
# the Amharic transliteration of Washington /waʃiŋtən/ is ዋሺንግተን.
ŋə;
ŋu;
ŋi;
ŋa;
ŋe;
ŋɨ;
ŋo;
ŋwə;
ŋwu;
ŋwi;
ŋwa;
ŋwe;
# Since there is no uvular nasal [ɴ] in Amharic, we use the velar nasal [ŋ].
ɴə;
ɴu;
ɴi;
ɴa;
ɴe;
ɴɨ;
ɴo;
ɴ;
# In Sebatbeit, ⷘ is spoken as palatalized voiced velar stop /ɡj/ ([1], Appendix H).
# Amharic speakers pronounce it as voiced velar stop /ɡ/ without palatalization.
ɡə;
ɡu;
ɡi;
ɡa;
ɡe;
ɡɨ;
ɡo;
tʼə;
tʼu;
tʼi;
tʼa;
tʼe;
tʼɨ;
tʼo;
tʼwa;
tʼ;
t\u0361ʃʼə;
t\u0361ʃʼu;
t\u0361ʃʼi;
t\u0361ʃʼa;
t\u0361ʃʼe;
t\u0361ʃʼɨ;
t\u0361ʃʼo;
t\u0361ʃʼo; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /t\u0361ʃʼɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
t\u0361ʃʼwa;
t\u0361ʃʼ;
# According to Appendix B of [1], the following are used in the Bench language
# (aka Benchnon, Gimira). In Bench, ⶻ is pronounced as /ʈ\u0361ʂʼ/ Retroflex
# ejective affricate; with a phonemic distrinction to the non-retroflex version.
# Amharic does not have retroflex phonemes, so we go with /t\u0361ʃʼ/.
t\u0361ʃʼə;
t\u0361ʃʼu;
t\u0361ʃʼi;
t\u0361ʃʼa;
t\u0361ʃʼe;
t\u0361ʃʼɨ;
t\u0361ʃʼo;
t\u0361ʃə;
t\u0361ʃu;
t\u0361ʃi;
t\u0361ʃa;
t\u0361ʃe;
t\u0361ʃɨ;
t\u0361ʃo;
t\u0361ʃwa;
t\u0361ʃ;
tə;
tu;
ti;
ta;
te;
tɨ;
to;
to; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /tɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
twa;
t;
pʼə;
pʼu;
pʼi;
pʼa;
pʼe;
pʼɨ;
pʼo;
pʼo; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /pʼɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
pʼwa;
pʼ;
sʼə;
sʼu;
sʼi;
sʼa;
sʼe;
sʼɨ;
sʼo;
sʼwa;
sʼ;
# In Amharic, ፀ is pronounced like ጸ.
# Source: [1], section on “Phonological Redundancy” for Amharic, page 5.
sʼə;
sʼu;
sʼi;
sʼa;
sʼe;
sʼɨ;
sʼo;
sʼo; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /sʼɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
# Amharic speakers pronounce ሰ like ሠ. Source: [1], Appendix B.
sə;
su;
si;
sa;
se;
sɨ;
so;
so; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /sɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
swa;
s;
fə;
fu;
fi;
fa;
fe;
fɨ;
fo;
fwə; # Sebatbeit /fwə/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
fwu; # Sebatbeit /fwu/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
fwi; # Sebatbeit /fwi/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
fwa;
fwe; # Sebatbeit /fwe/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
fja; # Unclear which language; Appendix L of [1] transcribes ፚ as /fja/.
f;
pə;
pu;
pi;
pa;
pe;
pɨ;
po;
po; # Dizi, Me’en, Mursi, Suri /pɔ/ ([1], Appendix E); not used in Amharic.
pwə; # Sebatbeit /pwə/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
pwu; # Sebatbeit /pwu/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
pwi; # Sebatbeit /pwi/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
pwa;
pwe; # Sebatbeit /pwe/ ([1], Appendix H); not used in Amharic.
p;
ə;
u; # ኡላዓን ባዓታር ← Ulaan Baatar /ulaʕan baʕatar/
a; # አምስተርዳም ← Amsterdam /amstərdam/
e;
ɨ;
o; # ፖርት ኦፍ ስፔን ← Port of Spain /port of speːn/
i; # ኢስላማባድ ← Islamabad /islamabad/
# Applications will typically split words before calling our rules.
# To be resilient, we replace punctuation by whitespace in IPA.
' '; # U+1360 ETHIOPIC SECTION MARK
' '; # U+1361 ETHIOPIC WORDSPACE
' '; # U+1362 ETHIOPIC FULL STOP
' '; # U+1363 ETHIOPIC COMMA
' '; # U+1364 ETHIOPIC SEMICOLON
' '; # U+1365 ETHIOPIC COLON
' '; # U+1366 ETHIOPIC PREFACE COLON
' '; # U+1367 ETHIOPIC QUESTION MARK
' '; # U+1368 ETHIOPIC PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR
# Likewise, Ethiopic numberals cannot be pronounced by these rules,
# so we replace them by whitespace in the output IPA notation.
# Applications will typically pre-process text before calling
# the am → am_FONIPA transform.
' '; # U+1369 ETHIOPIC DIGIT ONE
' '; # U+136A ETHIOPIC DIGIT TWO
' '; # U+136B ETHIOPIC DIGIT THREE
' '; # U+136C ETHIOPIC DIGIT FOUR
' '; # U+136D ETHIOPIC DIGIT FIVE
' '; # U+136E ETHIOPIC DIGIT SIX
' '; # U+136F ETHIOPIC DIGIT SEVEN
' '; # U+1370 ETHIOPIC DIGIT EIGHT
' '; # U+1371 ETHIOPIC DIGIT NINE
' '; # U+1372 ETHIOPIC NUMBER TEN
' '; # U+1373 ETHIOPIC NUMBER TWENTY
' '; # U+1374 ETHIOPIC NUMBER THIRTY
' '; # U+1375 ETHIOPIC NUMBER FORTY
' '; # U+1376 ETHIOPIC NUMBER FIFTY
' '; # U+1377 ETHIOPIC NUMBER SIXTY
' '; # U+1378 ETHIOPIC NUMBER SEVENTY
' '; # U+1379 ETHIOPIC NUMBER EIGHTY
' '; # U+137A ETHIOPIC NUMBER NINETY
' '; # U+137B ETHIOPIC NUMBER HUNDRED
' '; # U+137C ETHIOPIC NUMBER TEN THOUSAND
# Transform IPA length markers to one of these:
# U+135D ETHIOPIC COMBINING GEMINATION AND VOWEL LENGTH MARK
# U+135E ETHIOPIC COMBINING VOWEL LENGTH MARK
# U+135F ETHIOPIC COMBINING GEMINATION MARK
::null();
ː ; # Strip off any remaining IPA length markers.
::(null);
($IPA_CONSONANT) ([jw]? $IPA_VOWEL) \u135D $1 ː $2 ː;
($IPA_CONSONANT) ([jw]? $IPA_VOWEL) \u135E $1 $2 ː;
($IPA_CONSONANT) ([jw]? $IPA_VOWEL?) \u135F $1 ː $2;
[\u135D \u135E \u135F] ; # Strip off any remaining length markers.
$1 wa \u135D ($LABIALIZABLE_BEFORE_A) ː waː; # ቷ\u135D ← [tːʷaː]
$1 wa \u135E ($LABIALIZABLE_BEFORE_A) waː; # ቷ\u135E ← [tʷaː]
$1 wa \u135F ($LABIALIZABLE_BEFORE_A) ː wa; # አቷ\u135F ← [tːʷa]
$1 \u135F $2 \u135E ([b $LABIALIZABLE_BEFORE_A]) ː ([jw] $IPA_VOWEL) ː;
$1 \u135F $2 {([b $LABIALIZABLE_BEFORE_A]) ː ([jw] $IPA_VOWEL?)};
$1 \u135E ($IPA_VOWEL ː);
$1 \u135D (jː $IPA_VOWEL ː);
$1 \u135E ([jw] $IPA_VOWEL ː);
$1 \u135F (jː $IPA_VOWEL?);
$1 \u135D ($IPA_CONSONANT ː [w]? $IPA_VOWEL ː);
$1 \u135E ($IPA_CONSONANT [w]? $IPA_VOWEL ː);
$1 \u135F ($IPA_CONSONANT ː [w]? $IPA_VOWEL?);
# Insert syllable markers in a separate pass.
::null;
{($IPA_VOWEL ː?)} [[:L:]] $1 \.;
::(null);
[ˈˌ\. \u0303\u032F];
aj ai; # Nairobi /nairobi/ ናይሮቢ, Cairo /kairo/ ካይሮ
aw au; # Bissau /bisːau/ ቢሳው
eji ei; # Beijing /beid\u0361ʒiŋ/ ቤዪጂንግ
ewo eo; # Montevideo /montevideo/ ሞንቴቪዴዎ
ija ia; # Monrovia /monrovia/ ሞንሮቪያ
ijə iə; # Reunion /rijunijən/ ሪዩኒየን
iw iu; # Vilnius /vilnius/ ቪልኒውስ, New Delhi /niu deːli/ ኒው ዴሊ
jo io; # Tokyo /tokio/ ቶክዮ
nɡ ŋɡ; # Kongo /koŋɡo/ ኮንጎ, Hungary /həŋɡari/ ሀንጋሪ
nɡ ŋ; # Bangkok /baŋkok/ ባንግኮክ, Beijing /beid\u0361ʒiŋ/ ቤዪጂንግ
uwa ua; # Kuala Lumpur /kuala lumpur/ ኩዋላ ሉምፑር, Ruanda /ruanda/ ሩዋንዳ
bwe bue; # Buenos Aires /buenos aires/ ብዌኖስ አይሬስ
sʼ t\u0361s; # Podgorica /podɡorit\u0361sa/ ፖድጎሪጻ, Vaduz /fadut\u0361s/ ፋዱጽ
uwi ui; # Port Luis /port luis/ ፖርት ሉዊስ
uwe ue; # Lithuania /lituenia/ ሊቱዌኒያ, Venezuela /venɨzuela/ ቬንዙዌላ
::(null);
ʔə \. ə;
ʔu \. u;
ʔi \. i;
ʔa \. a;
ʔe \. e;
ʔɨ \. ɨ;
ʔo \. o;
$1 w {($IPA_VOWEL ː?) \u032F} $IPA_VOWEL; # /ewowa/ ← /e\u032Fo\u032Fa/
::(null);
n [n {n\u033C} {n\u033C\u030A} {m\u033A} {n\u030A} {n\u0325} ᵑ];
m {m\u0325} {m\u032A} ᵐ];
ɲ [{ɳ\u030A} \u0325} ɳ \u030A} \u0325} ɲ];
ŋ [{ŋ\u030A} \u0325} ŋ];
ɴ [{ɴ\u030A} \u0325} ɴ];
p [{t\u033C} {p\u033A}];
pʼ ɋ];
b [{d\u033C} {b\u033A} \u033C} ɓ];
t [{t\u032A} ʈ];
tʼ ʖ];
d ɗ ᶑ];
k q;
kʼ ʗ];
ɡ [g ɢ ɣ ɠ ʛ];
nɡ ᵑɡ;
ʔ ʡ;
s \u0331} \u031E} \u033C} \u033A}];
z \u0320} \u033C} \u033A}];
sʼ [{t\u0361s} {t\u035Cs} ʦ];
t\u0361ʃ [{t\u035Cʃ} ʧ {t\u0361ɕ} {t\u035Cɕ} ʨ \u0361ʂ} c];
t\u0361ʃʼ ʇ ǂ ʄ];
d\u0361ʒ ʣ {d\u0361z} {d\u035Cz} {d\u0361ɕ} ʥ {d\u0361ʑ} {d\u035Cʑ} \u0361ʐ} {d\u0361ʐ} ɟ];
pf [{p\u032A} {p\u0346} ȹ {p\u0361f} {p\u032Af} {p\u032A\u035Cf}];
bv [{b\u032A} {b\u0346} ȸ {b\u0361v} {b\u032A\u0361v}];
ʃ ɕ];
ʒ ʑ];
r ɽ ʁ];
rːʒ r\u031Dː;
rʒ r\u031D;
v β;
x x χ];
ʕ ʕ\u031D;
h ɦ;
j ʲ];
lj ʎ [iɨ]? [jʝʲ]?;
t\u0361ʃl [{t\u0361ɬ} {tɬ}];
ʃl ɬ;
w {u\u032F} $IPA_VOWEL;
w ʷ;
ʼː ːʼ; # /pʼː/ ← /pːʼ/; /sʼː/ ← /sːʼ/; etc.
::(null);
i y;
ɨ ʉ];
u ɯ];
ə æ ɘ];
o ø];
a ɑ;
ʼ ʰ;
[ʱ];
$1ːʲ ([pbtd])ʲː; # [bːʲeː] ← [bʲːeː]
$1ːʷ ([pbtd])ʷː; # [bːʷeː] ← [bʷːeː]
::(NFC);
[ \u0303 \u0330 \u030B \u0301 \u0304 \u0300 \u030F \u030C \u0302 ˥ ˦ ˧ ˨ ˩ ];
::(NFD);