tree: 6ba23d237b63cabf83cd0af408ae081dcbe789df [path history] [tgz]
  1. README.md
  2. decode_filter_arm_neon.wuffs
  3. decode_filter_fallback.wuffs
  4. decode_filter_x86_sse42.wuffs
  5. decode_png.wuffs
  6. decode_swizzle_fallback.wuffs
  7. decode_swizzle_tricky.wuffs
std/png/README.md

PNG

PNG (Portable Network Graphics) is a lossless image compression format for still images. APNG (Animated PNG) is an unofficial extension for animated images.

Wuffs does not currently implement the APNG extension.

File Structure

A PNG file consists of an 8-byte magic identifier and then a series of chunks. Each chunk is:

  • a 4-byte uint32 payload length N.
  • a 4-byte chunk type (e.g. gAMA for gamma correction metadata).
  • an N-byte payload.
  • a 4-byte uint32 CRC-32 checksum of the previous (N + 4) bytes, including the chunk type but excluding the payload length.

All multi-byte numbers (including 16-bit depth RGBA colors) are stored big-endian. The first chunk has an IHDR type (whose 13-byte payload contains the uint32 width and height). The last chunk has an IEND type (and a 0-byte payload).

For example, this 36 × 24 (0x24 × 0x1C), 8 bits-per-pixel PNG file's chunk sequence starts: IHDR, gAMA, cHRM, bKGD, IDAT...

$ hd test/data/hippopotamus.interlaced.png | head
00000000  89 50 4e 47 0d 0a 1a 0a  00 00 00 0d 49 48 44 52  |.PNG........IHDR|
00000010  00 00 00 24 00 00 00 1c  08 02 00 00 01 f1 4c ba  |...$..........L.|
00000020  99 00 00 00 04 67 41 4d  41 00 00 b1 8f 0b fc 61  |.....gAMA......a|
00000030  05 00 00 00 20 63 48 52  4d 00 00 7a 26 00 00 80  |.... cHRM..z&...|
00000040  84 00 00 fa 00 00 00 80  e8 00 00 75 30 00 00 ea  |...........u0...|
00000050  60 00 00 3a 98 00 00 17  70 9c ba 51 3c 00 00 00  |`..:....p..Q<...|
00000060  06 62 4b 47 44 00 ff 00  ff 00 ff a0 bd a7 93 00  |.bKGD...........|
00000070  00 09 7a 49 44 41 54 48  c7 65 56 69 90 54 d5 19  |..zIDATH.eVi.T..|
00000080  bd eb 5b fb 75 bf de a6  a7 e9 9e b5 67 06 74 80  |..[.u.......g.t.|
00000090  08 a8 50 a8 10 b4 2c 2c  b5 a2 21 d1 44 8d 26 24  |..P...,,..!.D.&$|

The upper / lower case bit of a chunk type's first of four letters denote critical / ancillary chunks. There are four critical chunk types, which must occur in this order (although a PLTE chunk is optional and there can be more than one IDAT chunk):

  • IHDR contains what Wuffs calls the image config (width, height and pixel format (e.g. 4 bits per pixel gray, RGB, RGBA_NONPREMUL_4X16BE)) and the interlacing bit.
  • PLTE contains the color palette.
  • IDAT contains the zlib-compressed filtered pixel data. If there are multiple IDAT chunks, their payloads are treated as concatenated.
  • IEND contains an empty payload.

The PNG specification allows decoders to ignore all ancillary chunks, but when converting a PNG file to pixels on a screen, high quality decoders should still process transparency related (tRNS) and color space related (cHRM, gAMA, iCCP, sBIT and sRGB) chunks.

Filtering

Encoding a PNG involves subtracting (using modular uint8 arithmetic) a predicted value from each pixel (before zlib compressing the residuals). The predicted value of pixel x depends on the pixel to the left (a), the pixel above (b) and the pixel above-left (c). Decoding a PNG involves reversing that process (after zlib decompression).

Each row of pixels uses one of five prediction algorithms, also called filters: 0=None, 1=Sub, 2=Up, 3=Average and 4=Paeth.

  • Filter 0: Prediction = 0.
  • Filter 1: Prediction = a.
  • Filter 2: Prediction = b.
  • Filter 3: Prediction = floor((a + b) / 2).
  • Filter 4: Prediction = paeth(a, b, c).

The Paeth prediction function is around 10 lines of code and is described in the PNG spec.

Prediction conceptually involves pixels but in practice works on bytes. 8-bit depth RGB images have 3 bytes per pixel, so the ‘pixel to the left’ means 3 bytes prior in the zlib-decompressed stream. Low depth images (e.g. bi-level images have 0.125 bytes per pixel) use a filter distance of 1 byte.

The bytes of the ‘pixel to the left’ of the first column is implicitly zero. Likewise for the ‘pixel above’ the first row.

Per-Row Filter Byte

Just after zlib decompression when decoding (or just before zlib compression when encoding), the image is represented as ((ceil(width * bpp) + 1) * height) bytes, where bpp is the possibly-fractional number of bytes per pixel (e.g. 3 for RGB, 4 for RGBA). Each of the height rows of pixel data start with an additional byte that denotes the per-row filter.

For example, a 4 pixel wide RGB (3 bpp) image would have 13 bytes per row. Undoing the filter on this row (whose initial 0x01 byte denotes the Sub filter) of residuals:

0x01, 0x57, 0x68, 0x61, 0x74, 0x73, 0x49, 0x6E, 0x41, 0x4E, 0x61, 0x6D, 0x65

reconstitutes the original RGB pixel data for that row:

____  0x57, 0x68, 0x61, 0xCB, 0xDB, 0xAA, 0x39, 0x1C, 0xF8, 0x9A, 0x89, 0x5D

Interlacing

TODO.

Further Reading

See the PNG Wikipedia article.