Add more png benchmarks for alternative mimic libs

On a mid-range x86_64 laptop:

"libpng" (Debian's /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpng16.so) numbers are
used as a 1.00x baseline for the other libraries.

(†): libpng's "simplified API" doesn't provide a way to ignore the
checksum. We copy the "verify_checksum" numbers for a 1.00x baseline.
Some of the other libraries don't have the option to ignore or verify
the checksum, always doing only one or the other.

----

libpng_decode_19k_8bpp                            58.0MB/s ± 0%  1.00x
libpng_decode_40k_24bpp                           73.1MB/s ± 0%  1.00x
libpng_decode_77k_8bpp                             177MB/s ± 0%  1.00x
libpng_decode_552k_32bpp_ignore_checksum           146MB/s ± 0%  (†)
libpng_decode_552k_32bpp_verify_checksum           146MB/s ± 0%  1.00x
libpng_decode_4002k_24bpp                          104MB/s ± 0%  1.00x

----

wuffs_decode_19k_8bpp/clang9                       131MB/s ± 0%  2.26x
wuffs_decode_40k_24bpp/clang9                      153MB/s ± 0%  2.09x
wuffs_decode_77k_8bpp/clang9                       472MB/s ± 0%  2.67x
wuffs_decode_552k_32bpp_ignore_checksum/clang9     370MB/s ± 0%  2.53x
wuffs_decode_552k_32bpp_verify_checksum/clang9     357MB/s ± 0%  2.45x
wuffs_decode_4002k_24bpp/clang9                    156MB/s ± 0%  1.50x

wuffs_decode_19k_8bpp/gcc10                        136MB/s ± 1%  2.34x
wuffs_decode_40k_24bpp/gcc10                       162MB/s ± 0%  2.22x
wuffs_decode_77k_8bpp/gcc10                        486MB/s ± 0%  2.75x
wuffs_decode_552k_32bpp_ignore_checksum/gcc10      388MB/s ± 0%  2.66x
wuffs_decode_552k_32bpp_verify_checksum/gcc10      373MB/s ± 0%  2.55x
wuffs_decode_4002k_24bpp/gcc10                     164MB/s ± 0%  1.58x

----

libspng_decode_19k_8bpp/clang9                    59.3MB/s ± 0%  1.02x
libspng_decode_40k_24bpp/clang9                   78.4MB/s ± 0%  1.07x
libspng_decode_77k_8bpp/clang9                     189MB/s ± 0%  1.07x
libspng_decode_552k_32bpp_ignore_checksum/clang9   236MB/s ± 0%  1.62x
libspng_decode_552k_32bpp_verify_checksum/clang9   203MB/s ± 0%  1.39x
libspng_decode_4002k_24bpp/clang9                  110MB/s ± 0%  1.06x

libspng_decode_19k_8bpp/gcc10                     59.6MB/s ± 0%  1.03x
libspng_decode_40k_24bpp/gcc10                    77.5MB/s ± 0%  1.06x
libspng_decode_77k_8bpp/gcc10                      189MB/s ± 0%  1.07x
libspng_decode_552k_32bpp_ignore_checksum/gcc10    223MB/s ± 0%  1.53x
libspng_decode_552k_32bpp_verify_checksum/gcc10    194MB/s ± 0%  1.33x
libspng_decode_4002k_24bpp/gcc10                   109MB/s ± 0%  1.05x

----

lodepng_decode_19k_8bpp/clang9                    65.1MB/s ± 0%  1.12x
lodepng_decode_40k_24bpp/clang9                   72.1MB/s ± 0%  0.99x
lodepng_decode_77k_8bpp/clang9                     222MB/s ± 0%  1.25x
lodepng_decode_552k_32bpp_ignore_checksum/clang9               skipped
lodepng_decode_552k_32bpp_verify_checksum/clang9   162MB/s ± 0%  1.11x
lodepng_decode_4002k_24bpp/clang9                 70.5MB/s ± 0%  0.68x

lodepng_decode_19k_8bpp/gcc10                     61.1MB/s ± 0%  1.05x
lodepng_decode_40k_24bpp/gcc10                    62.5MB/s ± 1%  0.85x
lodepng_decode_77k_8bpp/gcc10                      176MB/s ± 0%  0.99x
lodepng_decode_552k_32bpp_ignore_checksum/gcc10                skipped
lodepng_decode_552k_32bpp_verify_checksum/gcc10    139MB/s ± 0%  0.95x
lodepng_decode_4002k_24bpp/gcc10                  62.3MB/s ± 0%  0.60x

----

stbimage_decode_19k_8bpp/clang9                   75.1MB/s ± 1%  1.29x
stbimage_decode_40k_24bpp/clang9                  84.6MB/s ± 0%  1.16x
stbimage_decode_77k_8bpp/clang9                    234MB/s ± 0%  1.32x
stbimage_decode_552k_32bpp_ignore_checksum/clang9  162MB/s ± 0%  1.11x
stbimage_decode_552k_32bpp_verify_checksum/clang9              skipped
stbimage_decode_4002k_24bpp/clang9                80.7MB/s ± 0%  0.78x

stbimage_decode_19k_8bpp/gcc10                    73.3MB/s ± 0%  1.26x
stbimage_decode_40k_24bpp/gcc10                   81.8MB/s ± 0%  1.12x
stbimage_decode_77k_8bpp/gcc10                     214MB/s ± 0%  1.21x
stbimage_decode_552k_32bpp_ignore_checksum/gcc10   145MB/s ± 0%  0.99x
stbimage_decode_552k_32bpp_verify_checksum/gcc10               skipped
stbimage_decode_4002k_24bpp/gcc10                 79.7MB/s ± 0%  0.77x

----

go_decode_19k_8bpp/go1.16                         39.3MB/s ± 1%  0.68x
go_decode_40k_24bpp/go1.16                        46.5MB/s ± 1%  0.64x
go_decode_77k_8bpp/go1.16                         78.3MB/s ± 0%  0.44x
go_decode_552k_32bpp_ignore_checksum/go1.16                    skipped
go_decode_552k_32bpp_verify_checksum/go1.16        120MB/s ± 1%  0.82x
go_decode_4002k_24bpp/go1.16                      50.7MB/s ± 0%  0.49x

----

rust_decode_19k_8bpp/rust1.48                     88.3MB/s ± 0%  1.52x
rust_decode_40k_24bpp/rust1.48                     133MB/s ± 0%  1.82x
rust_decode_77k_8bpp/rust1.48                      180MB/s ± 0%  1.02x
rust_decode_552k_32bpp_ignore_checksum/rust1.48                skipped
rust_decode_552k_32bpp_verify_checksum/rust1.48    146MB/s ± 0%  1.00x
rust_decode_4002k_24bpp/rust1.48                   134MB/s ± 0%  1.29x
5 files changed
tree: 7d99c2be11a790fb33482b51f89a0faffb9d20fb
  1. .github/
  2. .gitignore
  3. AUTHORS
  4. CONTRIBUTING.md
  5. CONTRIBUTORS
  6. LICENSE
  7. README.md
  8. build-all.sh
  9. build-example.sh
  10. build-fuzz.sh
  11. cmd/
  12. doc/
  13. example/
  14. fuzz/
  15. go.mod
  16. go.sum
  17. hello-wuffs-c/
  18. internal/
  19. lang/
  20. lib/
  21. release/
  22. script/
  23. std/
  24. test/
  25. wuffs-root-directory.txt
README.md

WUFFS Logo

Wuffs (Wrangling Untrusted File Formats Safely) is formerly known as Puffs (Parsing Untrusted File Formats Safely).

Wuffs is a memory-safe programming language (and a standard library written in that language) for wrangling untrusted file formats safely. Wrangling includes parsing, decoding and encoding. Example file formats include images, audio, video, fonts and compressed archives.

It is also fast. On many of its GIF decoding benchmarks, Wuffs measures 2x faster than “giflib” (C), 3x faster than “image/gif” (Go) and 7x faster than “gif” (Rust).

Goals and Non-Goals

Wuffs' goal is to produce software libraries that are as safe as Go or Rust, roughly speaking, but as fast as C, and that can be used anywhere C libraries are used. This includes very large C/C++ projects, such as popular web browsers and operating systems (using that term to include desktop and mobile user interfaces, not just the kernel).

Wuffs the Library is available as transpiled C code. Other C/C++ projects can use that library without requiring the Wuffs the Language toolchain. Those projects can use Wuffs the Library like using any other third party C library. It's just not hand-written C.

However, unlike hand-written C, Wuffs the Language is safe with respect to buffer overflows, integer arithmetic overflows and null pointer dereferences. A key difference between Wuffs and other memory-safe languages is that all such checks are done at compile time, not at run time. If it compiles, it is safe, with respect to those three bug classes.

The trade-off in aiming for both safety and speed is that Wuffs programs take longer for a programmer to write, as they have to explicitly annotate their programs with proofs of safety. A statement like x += 1 unsurprisingly means to increment the variable x by 1. However, in Wuffs, such a statement is a compile time error unless the compiler can also prove that x is not the maximal value of x's type (e.g. x is not 255 if x is a base.u8), as the increment would otherwise overflow. Similarly, an integer arithmetic expression like x / y is a compile time error unless the compiler can also prove that y is not zero.

Wuffs is not a general purpose programming language. It is for writing libraries, not programs. The idea isn't to write your whole program in Wuffs, only the parts that are both performance-conscious and security-conscious. For example, while technically possible, it is unlikely that a Wuffs compiler would be worth writing entirely in Wuffs.

What Does Wuffs Code Look Like?

The /std/lzw/decode_lzw.wuffs file is a good example. The Wuffs the Language document has more information on how it differs from other languages in the C family.

What Does Compile Time Checking Look Like?

For example, making this one-line edit to the LZW codec leads to a compile time error. wuffs gen fails to generate the C code, i.e. fails to compile (transpile) the Wuffs code to C code:

diff --git a/std/lzw/decode_lzw.wuffs b/std/lzw/decode_lzw.wuffs
index f878c5e..f10dcee 100644
--- a/std/lzw/decode_lzw.wuffs
+++ b/std/lzw/decode_lzw.wuffs
@@ -98,7 +98,7 @@ pub func lzw_decoder.decode?(dst ptr buf1, src ptr buf1, src_final bool)() {
                        in.dst.write?(x:s)

                        if use_save_code {
-                               this.suffixes[save_code] = c as u8
+                               this.suffixes[save_code] = (c + 1) as u8
                                this.prefixes[save_code] = prev_code as u16
                        }
$ wuffs gen std/gif
check: expression "(c + 1) as u8" bounds [1 ..= 256] is not within bounds [0 ..= 255] at
/home/n/go/src/github.com/google/wuffs/std/lzw/decode_lzw.wuffs:101. Facts:
    n_bits < 8
    c < 256
    this.stack[s] == (c as u8)
    use_save_code

In comparison, this two-line edit will compile (but the “does it decode GIF correctly” tests then fail):

diff --git a/std/lzw/decode_lzw.wuffs b/std/lzw/decode_lzw.wuffs
index f878c5e..b43443d 100644
--- a/std/lzw/decode_lzw.wuffs
+++ b/std/lzw/decode_lzw.wuffs
@@ -97,8 +97,8 @@ pub func lzw_decoder.decode?(dst ptr buf1, src ptr buf1, src_final bool)() {
                        // type checking, bounds checking and code generation for it).
                        in.dst.write?(x:s)

-                       if use_save_code {
-                               this.suffixes[save_code] = c as u8
+                       if use_save_code and (c < 200) {
+                               this.suffixes[save_code] = (c + 1) as u8
                                this.prefixes[save_code] = prev_code as u16
                        }
$ wuffs gen std/gif
gen wrote:      /home/n/go/src/github.com/google/wuffs/gen/c/gif.c
gen unchanged:  /home/n/go/src/github.com/google/wuffs/gen/h/gif.h
$ wuffs test std/gif
gen unchanged:  /home/n/go/src/github.com/google/wuffs/gen/c/gif.c
gen unchanged:  /home/n/go/src/github.com/google/wuffs/gen/h/gif.h
test:           /home/n/go/src/github.com/google/wuffs/test/c/gif
gif/basic.c     clang   PASS (8 tests run)
gif/basic.c     gcc     PASS (8 tests run)
gif/gif.c       clang   FAIL test_lzw_decode: bufs1_equal: wi: got 19311, want 19200.
contents differ at byte 3 (in hex: 0x000003):
  000000: dcdc dc00 00d9 f5f9 f6df dc5f 393a 3a3a  ..........._9:::
  000010: 3a3b 618e c8e4 e4e4 e5e4 e600 00e4 bbbb  :;a.............
  000020: eded 8f91 9191 9090 9090 9190 9192 9192  ................
  000030: 9191 9292 9191 9293 93f0 f0f0 f1f1 f2f2  ................
excerpts of got (above) versus want (below):
  000000: dcdc dcdc dcd9 f5f9 f6df dc5f 393a 3a3a  ..........._9:::
  000010: 3a3a 618e c8e4 e4e4 e5e4 e6e4 e4e4 bbbb  ::a.............
  000020: eded 8f91 9191 9090 9090 9090 9191 9191  ................
  000030: 9191 9191 9191 9193 93f0 f0f0 f1f1 f2f2  ................

gif/gif.c       gcc     FAIL test_lzw_decode: bufs1_equal: wi: got 19311, want 19200.
contents differ at byte 3 (in hex: 0x000003):
  000000: dcdc dc00 00d9 f5f9 f6df dc5f 393a 3a3a  ..........._9:::
  000010: 3a3b 618e c8e4 e4e4 e5e4 e600 00e4 bbbb  :;a.............
  000020: eded 8f91 9191 9090 9090 9190 9192 9192  ................
  000030: 9191 9292 9191 9293 93f0 f0f0 f1f1 f2f2  ................
excerpts of got (above) versus want (below):
  000000: dcdc dcdc dcd9 f5f9 f6df dc5f 393a 3a3a  ..........._9:::
  000010: 3a3a 618e c8e4 e4e4 e5e4 e6e4 e4e4 bbbb  ::a.............
  000020: eded 8f91 9191 9090 9090 9090 9191 9191  ................
  000030: 9191 9191 9191 9193 93f0 f0f0 f1f1 f2f2  ................

wuffs-test-c: some tests failed
wuffs test: some tests failed

Directory Layout

  • lang holds the Go libraries that implement Wuffs the Language: tokenizer, AST, parser, renderer, etc. The Wuffs tools are written in Go, but as mentioned above, Wuffs transpiles to C code, and Go is not necessarily involved if all you want is to use the C edition of Wuffs.
  • lib holds other Go libraries, not specific to Wuffs the Language per se.
  • internal holds internal implementation details, as per Go's internal packages convention.
  • cmd holds Wuffs the Language' command line tools, also written in Go.
  • std holds Wuffs the Library's code.
  • release holds the releases (e.g. in their C form) of Wuffs the Library.
  • test holds the regular tests for Wuffs the Library.
  • fuzz holds the fuzz tests for Wuffs the Library.
  • script holds miscellaneous utility programs.
  • doc holds documentation.
  • example holds example programs for Wuffs the Library.
  • hello-wuffs-c holds an example program for Wuffs the Language.

Documentation

The Note directory also contains various short articles.

Status

Version 0.2. The API and ABI aren't stabilized yet. The compiler undoubtedly has bugs. Assertion checking needs more rigor, especially around side effects and aliasing, and being sufficiently well specified to allow alternative implementations. Lots of detail needs work, but the broad brushstrokes are there.

Discussion

The mailing list is at https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/wuffs.

Contributing

The CONTRIBUTING.md file contains instructions on how to file the Contributor License Agreement before sending any pull requests (PRs). Of course, if you‘re new to the project, it’s usually best to discuss any proposals and reach consensus before sending your first PR.

Source code is auto-formatted.

License

Apache 2. See the LICENSE file for details.

Disclaimer

This is not an official Google product, it is just code that happens to be owned by Google.


Updated on December 2019.