# Glossary

#### Arithmetic

Addition `(x + y)`

, multiplication `(x * y)`

, etc.

#### Dependent Type

A type that depends on another value. For example, a variable `n`

‘s type might be “the length of `s`

”, for some other slice-typed variable `s`

. Dependent types are *a* way to implement bounds checking, but they’re not the only way. Wuffs does not use them.

#### Interval Arithmetic

See the interval arithmetic note.

#### Modular Arithmetic

Arithmetic that wraps around at a certain modulus, such as `256`

for the `base.u8`

type. For example, if `x`

is a `base.u8`

with value `200`

, then `(x + 70)`

has value `270`

and would overflow, but `(x ~mod+ 70)`

has value `14`

.

#### Operator Precedence

A ranking of arithmetic operators so that an expression like `a + b * c`

is unambiguous (for the computer), equivalent to exactly one of `(a + b) * c`

or, more conventionally, `a + (b * c)`

. While good for brevity, Wuffs does not have operator precedence: the bare `a + b * c`

is an invalid Wuffs expression and the parentheses must be explicit. The ambiguity (for the human) can be a source of bugs in other security-concious file format parsers.

Some binary operators (`+`

, `*`

, `&`

, `|`

, `^`

, `and`

, `or`

) are also associative: `(a + b) + c`

and `a + (b + c)`

are equivalent, and can be written in Wuffs as `a + b + c`

.

#### Refinement Type

A basic type further constrained to a subset of its natural range. For example, if `x`

has type `base.u8[0 ..= 99]`

then it is an unsigned 8-bit integer whose value must be less than `100`

. Without the refinement, `x`

could be as high as `255`

.

`base.u8[0 ..= 99]`

and `base.u32[0 ..= 99]`

are two different types. They can have different run-time representations.

Non-nullable pointer types can be thought of as a refinement of regular pointer types, where the refined range excludes the `nullptr`

value.

#### Saturating Arithmetic

Arithmetic that stops at certain bounds, such as `0`

and `255`

for the `base.u8`

type. For example, if `x`

is a `base.u8`

with value `200`

, then `(x + 70)`

has value `270`

and would overflow, but `(x ~sat+ 70)`

has value `255`

.